5G Wireless Technologies

5G Wireless Technologies

by Angeliki Alexiou (Editor)

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Overview

Mobile data traffic is expected to exceed traffic from wired devices in the next couple of years. This emerging future will be empowered by revolutionary 5G radio network technologies with a focus on application-driven connectivity, transparently deployed over various technologies, infrastructures, users and devices to realise the vision of 'the Internet of Everything'. This book presents a roadmap of 5G, from advanced radio technologies to innovative resource management approaches and novel network architectures and system concepts.

Topics covered include challenges for efficient multi-service coexistence for 5G below 6GHz; new quasi-deterministic approaches to channel modelling in millimetre-wave bands; large scale antenna systems; effects of densification and randomness of infrastructure deployment in cellular networks; wireless device-to-device (D2D) Links for machine-to-machine (M2M) communication; caching in large wireless networks; full duplexing; decoupled uplink and downlink access in heterogeneous networks; wireless networks virtualisation; and regulation, business and technology perspectives on licensed shared access (LSA) and three-tier spectrum sharing models.

5G Wireless Technologies is an essential guide to this emerging system for researchers, engineers and advanced students working in telecommunications and networking.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781785610615
Publisher: Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET)
Publication date: 08/31/2017
Series: Telecommunications Series
Pages: 416
Product dimensions: 6.14(w) x 9.21(h) x (d)

About the Author

Angeliki Alexiou received the Diploma in Electrical and Computer Engineering from the National Technical University of Athens, Greece in 1994 and the PhD in Electrical Engineering from Imperial College, University of London, UK in 2000. Since May 2009 she is a faculty member at the Department of Digital Systems, University of Piraeus, Greece. Prior to this (from Jan 1999 - April 2009) she was with Bell Laboratories, Wireless Research, Lucent Technologies (Alcatel-Lucent), in Swindon, UK. Professor Alexiou is the elected Chair of the Working Group on Radio Communication Technologies of the Wireless World Research Forum, elected member of the EURACON Assembly and elected member of mi-cluster Executive Board. Her research interests include radio communication technologies, resource management and machine-to-machine communications for 5G networks and beyond.

Table of Contents

1 The road to 5G - visions and challenges Angeliki Alexiou 1

1.1 A vision for 5G (in a nutshell) 1

1.2 Key disruptive system concept trends 3

1.3 Performance limitations, new design principles, and three paradigm shifts 4

1.4 Critical usage scenarios in 5G 8

1.4.1 Crowded local access 9

1.4.2 Bursty Io T 9

1.4.3 Ultra-reliable and low latency communications 9

1.5 This book: motivation and structure 10

References 14

2 New 5G air interface: challenges for efficient multi-service coexistence for 5G below 6 GHz Frank Schaich Salah El Ayoubi Berna Sayrac Gerhard Wunder Martin Schubert Andreas Georgakopoulos 17

2.1 Introduction 18

2.1.1 Chapter contributions 19

2.2 Core services and their associated KPIs 19

2.2.1 Core services 19

2.2.2 Key performance indicators 21

2.2.3 KP1 relevance to core services 23

2.3 Use cases from the 5G literature 23

2.3.1 Use cases from METIS/METIS-II projects 23

2.3.2 NGMN use cases 24

2.3.3 3GPP SMARTER SI use cases 26

2.4 The 5G use cases from FANTASTIC-5G 27

2.4.1 Detailed 5G use cases for RAN design 27

2.4.2 Selected FANTASTIC-5G use cases 27

2.5 Challenges for 5G design below 6 GHz 46

2.5.1 Design methodology 46

2.5.2 Service integration drivers 47

2.5.3 Link level challenges 48

2.5.4 System level challenges 50

2.6 System-level evaluation of technical components 50

2.7 Conclusions 52

Acknowledgement 53

References 53

3 New quasi-deterministic approach to channel modeling in millimeter-wave bands Alexander Maltsev Audrey Pudeyev Ilya Bolotin 55

3.1 Introduction 55

3.2 Q-D channel modeling approach 57

3.3 Millimeter-wave channel experimental measurements and results interpretation 58

3.3.1 Experimental measurement description and results 59

3.3.2 Experimental results interpretation 67

3.4 Quasi-deterministic approach for millimeter-wave channel modeling 73

3.4.1 General structure of Q-D channel model 74

3.4.2 Deterministic rays (D-rays) modeling 76

3.4.3 Statistical random rays (R-rays) modeling 83

3.4.4 Random reflection R-ray generation 84

3.4.5 Intra-cluster structure 84

3.4.6 Blockage modeling 86

3.4.7 Channel mobility modeling and impact 88

3.5 Q-D channel models implementation 90

3.5.1 University campus access channel model 91

3.5.2 Street canyon access channel model 93

3.5.3 Hotel lobby access channel model 94

3.5.4 Backhaul channel models 98

3.5.5 Device to device channel models 98

3.6 Conclusion 99

References 100

4 Large-scale antenna systems Christos Masouros Adrian Garcia-Rodriguez 105

4.1 Promises and challenges of LSAS 106

4.1.1 LSAS promises 107

4.1.2 LSAS challenges 113

4.2 LSAS channel models and propagation aspects 122

4.2.1 Theoretical LSAS channel models 122

4.2.2 Mutual coupling characterisation 126

4.2.3 Measurement campaigns and LSAS-specific channel models 128

4.3 LSAS: system design and optimisation 128

4.3.1 Reduced RF-chain implementations 128

4.3.2 Energy efficiency optimisation 133

4.3.3 Network architectures and distributed LSAS 134

4.4 Concluding remarks 136

Acknowledgements 136

References 136

5 Effects of densification and randomness of infrastructure deployment in cellular networks Stelios Stefanatos Antonis G. Gotsis Angeliki Alexiou 147

5.1 Introduction 147

5.1.1 Infrastructure densification in future cellular networks 147

5.1.2 Analytical modeling of future cellular networks 148

5.1.3 Purpose and organization of the chapter 149

5.2 Review of homogeneous Poisson point processes 150

5.2.1 Fundamental properties 150

5.2.2 Computation of functionals 151

5.2.3 Conditioning, stationarity, and ergodicity 152

5.3 System model and performance metrics 154

5.3.1 System model 154

5.3.2 System performance metrics 157

5.3.3 AP-UE association schemes 160

5.4 SIR performance analysis 162

5.4.1 Fully loaded network: downlink 162

5.4.2 Fully loaded network: uplink 168

5.4.3 Lightly loaded network 171

5.5 User rate performance analysis 176

5.5.1 Degrees of freedom distribution 176

5.5.2 User rate CDF and system design issues 179

5.5.3 System design 181

5.6 Conclusion 185

Appendix A 186

A.1 Derivation of (5.18) 186

A.2 Derivation of (5.24) 188

References 188

6 Wireless device-to-device (D2D) links for machine-to-machine (M2M) communication Nuno K. Pratas Petar Popovski 193

Abstract 193

6.1 Introduction 193

6.1.1 Key concepts in D2D communication 194

6.1.2 How can D2D help MTC? 195

6.1.3 Chapter organization 198

6.2 Underlay D2D links 198

6.2.1 Underlay signal model 199

6.2.2 Optimal underlay decoding 200

6.2.3 Sub-optimal underlay decoding 203

6.3 Underlay proximity discovery 204

6.3.1 Network-controlled proximity discovery overview 206

6.3.2 System model 207

6.3.3 Analysis 208

6.3.4 Numerical results and discussion 212

6.3.5 Remarks 213

6.4 Underlay direct communications 214

6.4.1 Analysis of topology A 214

6.4.2 Analysis of topology B 216

6.5 Conclusion 218

Acknowledgements 219

References 219

7 Caching in large wireless networks Georgios Paschos Marios Kountouris 223

7.1 Introduction 223

7.2 Sustainable multihop wireless networks with caching 225

7.2.1 System model 225

7.2.2 Multihop capacity optimization: relaxation and rounding 227

7.2.3 Asymptotic laws for Zipf popularity 231

7.2.4 Scaling laws for constant cache size K 232

7.2.5 Scaling the cache size K → ∞ 233

7.2.6 Discussion about the sustainability of wireless caching networks 234

7.3 Cache-enabled small cell networks 235

7.3.1 Cache-enabled SCNs with local user interest correlation 235

7.3.2 D2D caching vs. small cell caching 242

7.4 Research challenges for wireless caching 253

7.4.1 Modelling the requests in wireless networks 253

7.4.2 Coded caching for broadcast medium exploitation 254

7.4.3 Cooperative caching models 255

7.4.4 Advanced spatial models 255

References 255

8 Full duplexing Kari Rikkinen Markku Juntti Visa Tapio Ari Pouttu Björn Debaillie Cristina Lavin Mir Ghoraishi 261

8.1 Introduction 261

8.2 FD wireless transmission in 5G-scenarios and challenges 263

8.2.1 Full-duplex deployment scenarios 263

8.2.2 Full-duplex link budget and transceiver challenges 264

8.2.3 MAC protocol design challenges 267

8.3 Full-duplex transceiver 268

8.3.1 General 268

8.3.2 RF/analogue and antenna solutions for compact form factor devices 269

8.3.3 Digital baseband solutions for full-duplex transceiver 276

8.3.4 Prototype transceiver design and testing 279

8.3.5 Multiple antenna full-duplex systems 282

8.4 Full-duplex transmission in wireless networks 285

8.4.1 General 285

8.4.2 Full-duplex transmission in small area radio communication systems 286

8.5 Summary 296

References 297

9 Decoupled uplink and downlink access in heterogeneous networks Hisham Elshaer Maria A. Lema Toktam Mahmoodi Mischa Dohler 305

9.1 Introduction 305

9.2 HetNets challenges in 4G networks 306

9.2.1 Radio planning challenges in HetNets 306

9.2.2 Strategies for improvements in HetNets 308

9.2.3 Decoupling as a solution 310

9.3 Simulation setup 310

9.4 Performance evaluation 311

9.4.1 Coverage and capacity 312

9.4.2 Reliability and load balancing 315

9.4.3 Interference behaviour 316

9.5 Interoperability of DUDe with 4G and 5G features 318

9.5.1 Inter-band carrier aggregation 318

9.5.2 Cooperative multi-point 319

9.5.3 Millimetre wave 319

9.5.4 Different duplexing techniques 321

9.6 Enabling radio access network architectures for decoupling 321

9.6.1 Network procedures 322

9.6.2 DUDe with assisting connections 322

9.6.3 User plane bearer split for DUDe 323

9.6.4 Centralized solution 325

9.6.5 On the road to 5G-based architectures 325

9.7 DL/UL challenges and opportunities for higher layers 327

9.7.1 Effect of UL on the performance of higher layers 327

9.7.2 DL and UL, joint and decoupled 333

9.8 Conclusions 336

References 336

10 Wireless networks virtualization Chih-Lin I Jinri Huang Changming Bai Ran Duan Rongwei Ren 341

10.1 Introduction 341

10.2 Virtualization basics 342

10.3 Cloud RAN virtualization and its challenges 344

10.3.1 C-RAN basic 344

10.3.2 Challenges on C-RAN virtualization 346

10.4 Key technologies and solutions to RAN virtualization 346

10.4.1 Enhancement on host Linux 347

10.4.2 VM communication improvement 349

10.4.3 Real time enhancement 350

10.4.4 Live migration 351

10.4.5 Network acceleration 352

10.4.6 Container 353

10.4.7 CAT/CMT 354

10.4.8 Support of OpenStack 354

10.5 Proof-of-Concept development of virtualized RAN 354

10.5.1 Virtualized RAN demo system 354

10.5.2 Test results 357

10.6 Conclusion 360 Acknowledgements 361

References 361

11 Licensed shared access (LSA) and three-tier spectrum sharing models: regulation, business and technology perspectives Marja Matinmikko Seppo Yrjölä Miia Mustonen Petri Ahokangas Kari Homeman 363

Abstract 363

11.1 Introduction 363

11.2 Spectrum sharing 364

11.2.1 Spectrum access models and perspectives to sharing 364

11.2.2 Spectrum sharing concepts 366

11.3 Technical approaches 368

11.3.1 LSA technical aspects 368

11.3.2 CBRS technical aspects 369

11.4 Sharing model status in regulation and standardization 371

11.4.1 LSA 371

11.4.2 CBRS 372

11.5 Business considerations 374

11.5.1 LSA business aspects 376

11.5.2 CBRS business aspects 377

11.6 Results 380

11.6.1 LSA reference implementation 380

11.6.2 LSA performance evaluation 384

11.7 Future outlook and conclusions 385

References 386

12 Epilogue: wireless beyond 5G Angeliki Alexiou 389

12.1 A vision for wireless beyond 5G 389

12.2 Expectations and challenges for wireless beyond 5G 390

Index 393

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