Arctic Governance in a Changing World

Arctic Governance in a Changing World

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Overview

This comprehensive text explains the relationship between the Arctic and the wider world through the lenses of international relations, international law, and political economy. It is an essential resource for any student or scholar seeking a clear and succinct account of a region of ever-growing importance to the international community. Highlights include:
• Broad coverage of national and human security, Arctic economies, international political economy, human rights, the rights of indigenous people, the law of the sea, navigation, and environmental governance
• A clear review of current climate-related change
• Emphasis on the sources of cooperation in the Arctic through international relations theory and law
• Examination of the Arctic in the broader global context, illustrating its inextricable links to global processes

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781442235632
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
Publication date: 01/14/2019
Series: New Millennium Books in International Studies Series
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 344
Product dimensions: 6.51(w) x 9.23(h) x 0.50(d)
Age Range: 18 Years

About the Author

Mary Durfee is professor emerita at Michigan Technological University. She is a past Fulbright and Annenberg Scholar and has coauthored a book on international relations theory with James N. Rosenau, Thinking Theory Thoroughly, 2nd ed. (2000).

Rachael Lorna Johnstone is professor of law at the University of Akureyri, Iceland, and at the University of Greenland. She is a specialist in polar law and international human rights law. She is the author of Offshore Oil and Gas Development in the Arctic under International Law: Risk and Responsibility (2015).

Table of Contents

1 What the Arctic Tells us about World Affairs
·Cooperation Under Uncertainty
·Governance
·Cooperation
·Common v More Complex Representations of Arctic Affairs
·The Arctic and its Indigenous Peoples in World Affairs
·The Arctic Region and Policy Tools Used to Manage it
·Regions are Created by People through Discourses
·Governing the Arctic: International Law
·What the Arctic Tells Us about International Relations Theory
·Assumptions of Realism, Liberalism, and Critical Theories
·Regime Theory
·Arctic Puzzles for International Relations Theorists
·One Cannot Explain the Arctic without International Law
·The Arctic has Weak Institutions and Strong Cooperation
·The Arctic Illustrates Creative Uses of Sovereignty
·Human Security Rivals National Security
·Climate Change Matters in Governance Efforts.
·Organization of the Book
2 A Natural and Human History of the Arctic
·The Natural History of the Arctic
·The Physical Geography of the Arctic oCooling and Warming in the Arctic oChanging Atmospheric Chemistry oGreenhouse Gases and Permafrost oSea Ice oGlaciers and Ice Sheets oArctic Warming and Ocean Currents oBiodiversity in the Arctic
• Settlement of the Arctic oEurasia oMigrations to North America oEconomic Life oViking Exploration
• The Rise of the Sovereign European Arctic States and Colonization of the Arctic oEarly Formation of the Arctic States of Europe oRise of the Modern System of States oMapping the Arctic, Gaining Control oColonization oChanging State Borders through War oThe Napoleonic Wars oWorld War I
oWorld War II
oHot War to Cold War oInternational Cooperation oConclusions
3 Arctic Players
·The Indigenous in the Arctic
·Arctic States
·The United States
·Canada
·The Kingdom of Denmark
·Iceland
·Norway
·Sweden
·Finland
·Russia
·Non-Arctic States
·International Organizations and Fora
·The European Union
·The Arctic Council
·The Arctic Five
·The Barents Euro Arctic Region (BEAR)
·Other Regional Fora
·Global Fora
·Non-Governmental Organizations
·Corporate Interests
·Other Stakeholders
·Conclusions
4 Securities in the Arctic
·Security or Securities oSecurities are Interwoven
·Making Humans Secure oLogics of Security oCurrent Strategies to Understand and Manage Securities
·National Security
·How Secure is National Security in the Arctic?
·Power and Hegemonic Transitions: the Rise of China
·Geo-Strategy
·Security Dilemmas
·From Security Dilemmas to Arms Racing
·Hot Conflict in the Arctic? Two Unlikely Scenarios
·Conclusions
5 Arctic Economies and Resources
·Pillars of Arctic Economies
·The Subsistence Economy
·The Formal Economy
·The Transfer Economy
·Economic Sectors
·The Three “D’s
·Decoupling
·Dependency
·Diversification
·Arctic Resources
·Arctic Economies
·Competition between Different Sectors
·Social Impacts of Large-Scale Resource Extraction
·Interest Groups and Influences Inside and Outside the Arctic
·The Impacts of Climate Change on Arctic Resources
·Conclusions
6 The Political Economy of the Arctic
·Economic Globalization and Modern Capitalisms oThree Flavors of Capitalism oEconomic Development National Strategies
·Finance and Banking
·Free Trade
·NAFTA
·Supply and Value Chains
·A Perfect Trade Storm Hits Canadian Inuit
·Recent Neoliberal Trade Negotiations oCETA and CPTPP
oCETA Impacts oImpact on Small and Medium Enterprises oSocial Impacts
·Conclusions
7 Human Rights and the Rights of Indigenous Rights in the Arctic
·Human Rights or Indigenous Rights?
·How do Human Rights Impact Decision-Making?
·United Nations Instruments and Mechanisms
·The Council of Europe
·The Inter-American System of Human Rights Protection
·Responsibility for Human Rights and the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
·Human Rights and Indigenous Issues in the Arctic
·The Right to Self-Determination and Political Participation
·Land and Resource Management
·The Right to Culture
·Industrial Development and Rights to Participation
·Economic and Social Rights
·Conclusions
8 Law of the Sea in the Arctic
·The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)
·Maritime Zones
·Baselines
·The Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone
·The Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)
·The Continental Shelf
·The High Seas
·The Area Beyond National Jurisdiction
·Delimitation Between Adjacent or Opposite States
·Maritime Zones around the Svalbard Islands
·States’ or Peoples’ Rights over the Seas
·The Internationalization of the Arctic Ocean and Seas
·Conclusions
9 Arctic Shipping and Navigation
·Freedom of Navigation
·Arctic Shipping Today
·The Northern Sea Route
·Arctic Marine Tourism
·Sea-ice and Other Challenges to Arctic Shipping
·Global Interest in Arctic Transit Shipping
·Constraints to Freedom of Navigation
·Arctic Controversies: Straight Baselines and the Question of ‘International Straits’
·Are the straits in the NWP ‘international’?
·Does the NSR contain international straits?
·Managing the disputes: agreeing to disagree
·Environmental and Human Security: Vessel-Source Pollution and Safety at Sea
·International and Domestic Efforts to Control the Impacts and Reduce the Risks
·The Arctic Search and Rescue Agreement and the Agreement on Marine Oil Pollution Preparedness and Response
·The Polar Code
·Conclusions
10 Environmental Protection in the Arctic
·Principles of International Environmental Law
·The Environmental Impact Assessment
·The Precautionary Approach
·Conservation of Biological Diversity
·Sustainable Development
·Arctic Environmental Challenges
·Climate Change
·Long-Range Contaminants
·Protection and Preservation of the Marine Environment
·Human Rights and the Environment
·Implementation and Enforcement of International Environmental Law
·Conclusions
11 The Future of Arctic Governance
·Material and Ideational Connections
·Arctic Puzzles for International Relations Theorists
·One Cannot Explain the Arctic without International Law
·The Arctic has Weak Institutions and Strong Cooperation
·The Arctic Illustrates Creative Sovereignty
·Human Security Rivals National Security in Importance
·Climate Change Matters in Governance Efforts
·Questions for Further Reflection

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