ISBN-10:
1849199647
ISBN-13:
9781849199643
Pub. Date:
10/31/2016
Publisher:
Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET)
Biomedical Nanomaterials: From Design to Implementation

Biomedical Nanomaterials: From Design to Implementation

by Thomas J. Webster, Hilal YaziciThomas J. Webster

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Overview

Nanomaterials are able to penetrate nanoscale pores of tissues, possess prolonged circulation, enter cells, and have increased surface area per volume allowing for greater drug loading. For these reasons, nanomaterials are finding numerous uses in medicine including fighting cancer, promoting tissue regeneration, reversing aging, inhibiting infection, limiting inflammation or scar tissue growth, and many others.

This book describes the engineering applications and challenges of using nanostructured surfaces and nanomaterials in healthcare. Topics covered include biomimetic coating of calcium phosphates on Ti metals; surface modifications of orthopedic implant materials using an electroplating process; design, fabrication and application of carbon-based nano biomaterials; usage of stem cells in bone and cartilage tissue engineering; nanobiomaterials and 3D bioprinting for osteochondral regeneration; self- assembled peptide hydrogels for biomedical applications; antimicrobial properties of nanomaterials; nanoparticle enhanced radiation therapy for bacterial infection; nanomaterials used in implant technology and their toxicity; challenges of risk assessment of nanomaterials in consumer products and current regulatory status; and the clinical rationale for silicon nitride bioceramics in orthopedics.

With contributions from an international selection of researchers this book is essential reading for researchers in industry and academia working at the interfaces of healthcare, engineering and nanotechnology.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781849199643
Publisher: Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET)
Publication date: 10/31/2016
Series: Healthcare Technologies Series
Pages: 352
Product dimensions: 6.14(w) x 9.21(h) x (d)

About the Author

Thomas Webster is the Department Chair and Professor of Chemical Engineering at Northeastern University in Boston, USA. His research explores the use of nanotechnology in numerous applications. He is the President of the Society of Biomaterials, founding editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Nanomedicine, and serves on the editorial board of 15 additional journals. He has helped to organize 22 conferences emphasizing nanotechnology in medicine, and has organised over 53 symposia at numerous conferences emphasizing biological interactions with nanomaterials for AIChE, IEEE, MRS and ASME Annual Meetings.


Hilal Yazici is currently Senior Researcher at TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey)-GEBI. Previously, she was a postdoctoral research associate in Professor Thomas Webster's Group at Northeastern University. She also worked as researcher at various universities including University of Washington, University of Potsdam and Technical University of Berlin. She received her MSc and PhD from Istanbul Technical University in 2005 and 2012 respectively. Her research interests are molecular biomimetics, material binding peptides, biological coating of biomaterials and protein-enabled biosensors. She has authored over 50 peer reviewed journal papers, conference proceedings and presentations.

Table of Contents

Biographies xi

Preface xiii

Part I Nanomaterials for hard tissue engineering 1

1 Biomimetic coatings of calcium phosphates on titanium alloys Bengi Yilmaz Zafer Evis 3

Abstract 3

1.1 Biomimetics 4

1.2 Simulated body fluid (SBF) as a coating solution 5

1.3 HA coating of titanium alloys 6

1.4 Functionalization of HA coating via biomimetic method 10

1.5 Conclusions 11

References 11

2 Surface modifications of orthopedic implant materials using an electroplating process Yardnapar Parcharoen Sirinrath Sirivisoot 15

Abstract 15

2.1 Introduction 15

2.1.1 Current synthetic implant materials 16

2.1.2 Metals as implant materials 17

2.1.3 Failure problems of metallic implant materials 20

2.1.4 Surface modification on metal surfaces 23

2.2 Surface modification by electrochemical process 24

2.2.1 Electrodeposition 25

2.2.2 Oxidation 36

2.3 Future directions of surface modification by electrochemical processes 38

References 39

3 Carbon-based nano biomaterials: design, fabrication and application Xiao Lin Aaron Clasky Kalyn Lai Lei Yang 49

Abstract 49

3.1 Introduction 50

3.1.1 Overview of carbon-based nanomaterials 50

3.2 Modification of carbon-based nanomaterials for biomedical applications 53

3.2.1 Surface modification 53

3.2.2 Large-scale modification of carbon-based nanomaterials 56

3.2.3 Composites based on carbon nanostructures 58

3.3 Applications of carbon-based nanomaterials 60

3.3.1 Tissue repair and regeneration 60

3.3.2 Drug delivery 67

3.3.3 Bio-sensing and bio-imaging 71

3.4 Toxicity concern of carbon-based nano biomaterials 75

3.5 Summary and outlook 75

Acknowledgements 76

References 77

Part II Nanomaterials for soft tissue engineering 91

4 Usage of stem cells in bone and cartilage tissue engineering Gorke G. Pekozer Gamze T. Kose 93

Abstract 93

4.1 Bone and cartilage defects 93

4.1.1 Current treatment methods of bone and cartilage defects 94

4.2 Tissue engineering 95

4.2.1 Cells for bone tissue engineering (BTE) and cartilage tissue engineering (CTE) 96

4.3 Conclusion 106

Acknowledgments 107

References 107

5 Nanobiomaterials and 3D bioprinting for osteochondral regeneration Nathan J. Castro Lijie Grace Zhang 115

Abstract 115

5.1 Introduction 115

5.2 Osteochondral tissue regeneration 117

5.2.1 Nanobiomaterials for osteochondral regeneration 118

5.2.2 3D printing techniques 124

5.3 Conclusions and future directions 129

Acknowledgments 129

References 129

6 Self-assembling peptide hydrogels for biomedical applications Seren Hamsici Mustafa O. Guler 137

Abstract 137

6.1 Introduction 137

6.2 Molecular design principles 138

6.3 Factors affecting the self-assembly process 142

6.3.1 Co-assembly of peptide molecules 142

6.3.2 Effect of temperature 143

6.3.3 Effect of pH 143

6.3.4 Effect of salt concentration 144

6.3.5 Influence of chirality 144

6.3.6 Variations in amino acid chain 145

6.3.7 Hydrophobic interactions 145

6.4 Biomedical applications of the hydrogels 146

6.4.1 Drug delivery 146

6.4.2 Regenerative medicine 147

6.5 Conclusions and future perspectives 150

Acknowledgments 150

References 150

Part III Nanomaterials for bacterial infections and their toxicity 157

7 Antimicrobial properties of nanomaterials Nhu-Y. Nguyen Hiunan Liu 159

Abstract 159

7.1 Introduction: biofilm formation results from bacteria adherence to medical devices 159

7.2 Silver bromide nanoparticles 161

7.2.1 Antimicrobial properties of nAg 162

7.2.2 Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of nAg to mammalian cells 162

7.2.3 Silver nanocomposites as a new approach to reduce toxicity 162

7.3 Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2) 163

7.3.1 Photoactivation of TiO2 163

7.3.2 Antimicrobial mechanism of TiO2 164

7.3.3 Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of nTiO2 in mammalian cells 165

7.3.4 nTiO2 nanocomposite with polymer reducing toxicity 165

7.4 Zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) 166

7.4.1 nZnO use in cosmetics, textiles, and food industries 166

7.4.2 Antimicrobial mechanism of nZnO 167

7.4.3 Toxicity of nZnO for mammalian cells 167

7.4.4 Reducing nZnO toxicity by combining with other biocompatible polymers 170

7.5 Magnetite nanoparticles (nFe3O4) 170

7.5.1 Antimicrobial and biocompatibility properties of nFe3O4 171

7.5.2 Biocompatibility of magnetic particles to mammalian cells 171

7.6 Magnesium oxide nanoparticles (nMgO) 172

7.6.1 Unique properties of nMgO 172

7.6.2 Antimicrobial properties of nMgO 173

7.6.3 Biocompatibility of nMgO 174

7.7 Conclusion 174

References 174

8 Nanoparticle-enhanced radiation killing of bacteria Yang Luo Yong Qiao Sichao Hou Ming Su 181

Abstract 181

8.1 Introduction 181

8.2 Experimental 183

8.3 Results and discussion 184

8.3.1 Nanoparticle synthesis and modification 184

8.3.2 Nanoparticle cytotoxicity 186

8.3.3 Bactericidal activity of bismuth nanoparticles enhanced X-ray radiation 187

8.3.4 Dose-dependent bactericidal activity 189

8.3.5 Radiation safety issue 191

8.3.6 Penetrating power of X-ray radiation 191

8.4 Conclusions 191

References 192

9 Conventional and nano-based approaches to prevent bacterial infection Hilal Yazici Ece Alpaslan Garima Bhardwaj Thomas J. Webster 195

Abstract 195

9.1 Bacterial infection 195

9.2 Conventional approaches to prevent bacterial infection 198

9.2.1 Antibiotic treatment 198

9.2.2 Antimicrobial agents 200

9.2.3 Nonfouling surfaces 201

9.3 New approaches to prevent bacterial infection 202

9.3.1 Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) 202

9.3.2 Nanoparticle-based therapies 206

References 213

10 Nanomaterials used in implant technology and their toxicity Mine Altunbek Gamze Kuku Mustafa Culha 221

Abstract 221

10.1 Introduction 221

10.2 Nanomaterials in implants 222

10.2.3 TiO2 nanoparticles 222

10.2.2 Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) 224

10.2.3 Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) 227

10.2.4 Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) 229

10.2.5 Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) 231

10.3 Conclusions 232

References 233

Part IV Current and future clinical applications of nanomaterials 245

11 Nanotechnology and consumer products: challenges of risk assessment of nanomaterials and current regulatory status Haiou Qu 247

Abstract 247

11.1 Introduction 247

11.2 Toxicity testing of nanomaterials 251

11.2.1 Optical properties 252

11.2.2 Chemical reactivity 253

11.2.3 Physical properties 253

11.2.4 Aggregation 253

11.3 Exposure assessment of nanomaterials 256

11.4 Characterization of nanomaterials 260

11.4.1 Electron microscopy (EM) 260

11.4.2 X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) 262

11.4.3 X-ray diffraction (XRD) 263

11.4.4 Dynamic light scattering (DLS) 264

11.4.5 Centrifugation 265

11.4.6 Atomic force microscopy (AFM) 265

11.4.7 Separation techniques 266

11.4.8 Atomic spectrometry 268

11.4.9 Particle counting techniques 269

11.4.10 Sample handling and preparation 270

11.4.11 Minimum analytical characterization of nanomaterials 271

11.5 Current regulatory status 272

11.5.1 U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 272

11.5.2 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 272

11.5.3 European Union (EU) 274

11.5.4 China 274

11.5.5 Other parts of the world 275

References 275

12 The scientific rationale for using silicon nitride in biomedical implants Giuseppe Pezzotti Bryan McEntire Wenliang Zhu B. Sonny Bal 281

Abstract 281

12.1 Introduction 282

12.2 Oxygen activity in the anaerobic environment 283

12.2.1 Oxidation in polyethylene liners 283

12.2.2 Oxygen vacancies and sub-valent cations in the alumina lattice 288

12.2.3 Chemical triggers to polymorphic transformation of zirconia 291

12.3 Potential long-term advantages of non-oxide ceramics 297

12.3.1 Silicon nitride: a polyethylene-friendly ceramic 297

12.3.2 Establishing the concept of "positive" non-bioinertness 302

12.3.3 Surface embrittlement or long-lasting toughening? 306

12.4 Conclusions 310

References 312

Index 325

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