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Brookes Publishing
The Carolina Curriculum for Infants and Toddlers with Special Needs / Edition 3

The Carolina Curriculum for Infants and Toddlers with Special Needs / Edition 3

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The Carolina Curriculum for Infants and Toddlers with Special Needs, Third Edition is one of the two volumes of the The Carolina Curriculum, an assessment and intervention program designed for use with young children from birth to five years who have mild to severe disabilities. Developed for use with children from birth to 36 months, the CCITSN is an easy-to-use, criterion-referenced system that clearly links assessment with intervention and lets professionals work closely with the child's teachers, family members, and other service providers. Already trusted by thousands of early childhood professionals from coast to coast, this proven system is even easier to use with the revisions and updates in this third edition.

View our recorded webinar: The Carolina Curriculum: An Integrated System for Assessment and Intervention presented by Susan Attermeier.

Using The Carolina Curriculum is simple. In each of the age-specific volumes—now reorganized to establish a seamless transition between the two—all the areas to be assessed are clearly laid out in logical sequences in an Assessment Log. A professional observes the child playing with familiar toys and other available materials in a naturalistic environment, and caregivers may or may not participate. After all appropriate activities in each sequence have been observed or attempted, professionals and caregivers examine the strengths and weaknesses revealed during assessment, pinpoint items that need the most work, and select from the teaching activities that correspond to the items in each sequence of the Assessment Log.

CCITSN includes 24 logical teaching sequences covering five developmental domains: personal-social, cognition, communication, fine motor, and gross motor. Curricular sequences each consist of an introduction that explains why that sequence is important; suggested adaptations for children with visual, motor, and hearing impairments; and a list of behaviors associated with that sequence. For each behavior, users get a criterion that pinpoints the objective, a list of suggested materials for eliciting that behavior, procedures that help, and functional activities for encouraging that behavior within the child's daily routine. Appendices cover play and children with motor impairments, using object boards for teaching children with motor impairments, and more.

This book is part of The Carolina Curriculum, a bestselling assessment and intervention program designed for children birth to five with mild to severe disabilities. With this easy-to-use, criterion-referenced system, professionals who work with infants, toddlers, and preschoolers will closely link assessment with intervention and work effectively with the child's teachers, family members, and other service providers.

Learn more about The Carolina Curriculum.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781557666536
Publisher: Brookes Publishing
Publication date: 06/01/2004
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 504
Sales rank: 770,956
Product dimensions: 7.00(w) x 10.00(h) x 1.10(d)

About the Author

Nancy M. Johnson-Martin, Ph.D., has been a consultant for assessment and early intervention following her retirement fromm the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill where she held positions in the Division for Disorders of Development and Learning and in the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center (now called the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute).

Susan M. Attermeier, Ph.D., PT, is a pediatric physical therapist in private practice in Hillsborough, North Carolina. She was previously Assistant Professor in the Division of Physical Therapy at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Bonnie J. Hacker, M.H.S., OTR/L, is an occupational therapist with more than 25 years of experience working with children. She holds certifications in Neurodervelopmental Therapy, Southern California Sensory Integration Tests, and Sensory Integration and Parxis Tests. She is currently the director of Emerge—A Child's Place, a pediatric clinic in Durham and Chapel Hill, North Carolina, that provides children with occupational and speech therapy services.

Read an Excerpt

Excerpted from the Introduction of The Carolina Curriculum for Infants and Toddlers with Special Needs (CCITSN), Third Edition
By Nancy M. Johnson-Martin, Ph.D., Susan M. Attermeier, Ph.D., P.T., & Bonnie Hacker, M.H.S., O.T.R./L
© 2004. Brookes Publishing. All Rights Reserved.

There have been many changes in the field of early intervention since the first edition of The Carolina Curriculum for Handicapped Infants and Infants at Risk (Johnson-Martin, Jens, & Attermeier) was published in 1986. Following the enactment of the Education of the Handicapped Act Amendments of 1986 (PL 99-457), there was a dramatic expansion of early intervention services in the United States of America. We have progressed from having widely scattered services focused exclusively on the child to having programs in every state that focus on the child as part of a family unit and from having only a few therapists trained to work with young children with special needs to having a variety of personnel specifically educated and trained to work with this population and their families. There are now special educators, speech therapists, occupational therapists, physical therapists, psychologists, nurses, social workers, and nutritionists who are specialists in early intervention. Moreover, these professionals have learned to work together, not only sharing information and expertise but also allowing the boundaries between their roles to blur as appropriate. There has been a shift from professionals providing services primarily in center-based programs to providing services in homes, child care centers, and preschools. Professionals now form partnerships with parents, child care providers, and teachers to develop and implement intervention activities within the daily routines of the children they serve.

At the time the first Carolina Curriculum was developed, the field urgently needed materials for children functioning in the birth to 24-month range and for children with significant disabilities who could not be expected to develop evenly across all developmental domains. Thus, that curriculum focused on the birth to 24-month developmental period and tried to accommodate uneven developmental patterns by dividing the skills included in the five basic domains of development (personal-social, cognition, communication, fine motor, and gross motor) into 24 sequences of skills, arranged in an order that promoted building a new skill on the foundation of previously learned skills.

The acceptance of The Carolina Curriculum for Handicapped Infants and Infants at Risk encouraged the authors to develop a companion volume, The Carolina Curriculum for Preschoolers With Special Needs (CCPSN; Johnson-Martin, Attermeier, & Hacker, 1990), directed toward children in the 24- to 60-month developmental range. An attempt to integrate the infant and preschool curricula was made when the infant curriculum was revised in 1991 (The Carolina Curriculum for Infants and Toddlers with Special Needs, Second Edition [CCITSN]; Johnson-Martin, Jens, Attermeier, & Hacker). However, interventionists found it difficult to use either curriculum efficiently with children whose skills were scattered between the two volumes.

This revision of the CCITSN and its companion volume, the second edition of the CCPSN, are designed to provide a guide for working with children who have special needs from birth to 60 months. The infant and toddler curriculum now includes items that cover developmental skills from birth to 36 months, whereas the preschool curriculum includes items to cover developmental skills from 24 to 60 months. The sequence and the item names are identical in both volumes for the 24- to 36-month range so that interventionists can move smoothly from one curriculum to the other.


This edition, like previous editions of the CCITSN, links assessment to intervention through hierarchies of developmental tasks that are both relevant to typical routines for young children and pertinent to long-term adaptation—an approach described as "authentic" by Bagnato, Neisworth, and Munson (1997). That is, the intervention is integrated in a meaningful way into the child's life. Because each item on the assessment tool is linked directly to a curriculum item that describes procedures for teaching the assessed skill, readers have a framework for moving smoothly from assessment to intervention. This edition includes the following characteristics:

  1. The curriculum is based on typical sequences of development but does not assume that a child will develop at the same rate across domains or even within one domain (e.g., a child may exhibit typical cognitive development along with very delayed motor development, a child may have age-appropriate grammatical structures but have significantly delayed vocabulary). Thus, the curriculum is designed for you to use both with the child who is developing slowly but in a typical pattern and with the child whose pattern of development is markedly atypical due to one or more impairments.
  2. The curriculum approaches atypical development in two ways. First, the items in each developmental domain are subdivided into logical teaching sequences (i.e., a sequence in which item order is primarily determined by how one skill builds on another, not only by the mean age levels at which typical children learn the skills). Second, general modifications of the items in each developmental domain are suggested so that you can accommodate a child's particular sensory or motor limitations. Thus, a child with severely delayed motor abilities but potentially average cognitive skills is not held up in progressing through the cognitive domain because he or she cannot do items that require typical motor skills.
  3. The curriculum is based on the recognition that many infants and toddlers with serious impairments will never develop typically in spite of intervention efforts. Thus, in treating these children, you must consider teaching atypical but highly adaptive skills that may temporarily or permanently replace typical skills. For example, should a child be unable to talk, it is appropriate for you to teach pointing or another indicator response that will allow him or her to make choices, communicate wishes, and so forth.
  4. Although the curriculum is developmental, with items drawn from standard developmental assessment tools, clinical experience, and the observations of Jean Piaget, behavioral theory and methodology underlie item construction. There is also a strong emphasis on developing adaptive functional skills, even if these are not necessarily typical (e.g., moving by scooting on one's buttocks or using a scooter board when crawling would be typical but is not functional).

The CCITSN has been designed to provide a systematic approach for developing intervention plans for children with special needs who are functioning within the birth to 36-month developmental range. In this curriculum, you will find

  • A criterion-referenced assessment for determining the child's mastery of important social, cognitive, language, motor, and adaptive skills
  • Suggestions for selecting educational objectives from the assessment
  • Guidelines for developing activities for the individualized family service plan (IFSP) that incorporate the educational objectives

Table of Contents

About the Authors
  1. Introduction
  2. Guiding Learning: Principles and Suggestions
  3. Environmental Factors Influencing Learning, Development, and Emergent Literacy
  4. Using The Carolina Curriculum
Assessment Log
Developmental Progress Chart

Curriculum Sequences
Sequence 1 Self-Regulation & Responsibility
Sequence 2 Interpersonal Skills
Sequence 3 Self-Concept
Sequence 4-I Self-Help: Eating
Sequence 4-II Self-Help: Dressing
Sequence 4-III Self-Help: Grooming
Sequence 4-IV Self-Help: Toileting

Sequence 5 Attention & Memory: Visual/Spatial
Sequence 6-I Visual Perception: Blocks & Puzzles
Sequence 6-II Visual Perception: Matching & Sorting
Sequence 7 Functional Use of Objects & Symbolic Play
Sequence 8 Problem Solving/Reasoning
Sequence 9 Number Concepts

Sequence 10 Concepts/Vocabulary: Receptive
Sequence 11 Concepts/Vocabulary: Expressive
Sequence 12 Attention & Memory: Auditory

Sequence 13 Verbal Comprehension
Sequence 14 Conversation Skills
Sequence 15 Grammatical Structure
Sequence 16 Imitation: Vocal

Fine Motor
Sequence 17 Imitation: Motor
Sequence 18 Grasp & Manipulation
Sequence 19 Bilateral Skills
Sequence 20 Tool Use
Sequence 21 Visual-Motor Skills

Gross Motor
Sequence 22-I Upright: Posture & Locomotion
Sequence 22-II Upright: Balance
Sequence 22-III Upright: Ball Play
Sequence 22-IV Upright: Outdoor Play
Sequence 23 Prone (On Stomach)
Sequence 24 Supine (On Back)

Appendix A: Selected Impairments and Their Effects on Development
Appendix B: Resources and Recommended Readings
Appendix C: Play and Children with Motor Impairments
Appendix D: Object Boards as Aids for Teaching Children with Severe Motor Impairments
Appendix E: Motor Milestones in Infant Development


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