This is the first edited book that deals with the special topic of signals and images within Case-Based Reasoning (CBR). Signal-interpreting systems are becoming increasingly popular in medical, industrial, ecological, biotechnological and many other applications. Existing statistical and knowledge-based techniques lack robustness, accuracy and flexibility. New strategies are needed that can adapt to changing environmental conditions, signal variation, user needs and process requirements. Introducing CBR strategies into signal-interpreting systems can satisfy these requirements.