Cellulose and Other Natural Polymer Systems: Biogenesis, Structure, and Degradation

Cellulose and Other Natural Polymer Systems: Biogenesis, Structure, and Degradation

by R. Malcolm Brown

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1982)

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The concept for a treatise covering selected natural polymer systems was initiated during a national meeting in cell biology in 1978. The challenge to the editor was to organize a book dealing principally but not exclusively with cellulose. A brief background may help to provide the reader with information to understand the reasons for the specific selections within this volume. better During the past decade, we have witnessed significant changes in the sciences as well as the day-to-day life styles of our citizens. It will not be forgotten that during the early seventies, a significant change was to take many Americans by surprise. The oil embargo on The United States caused unexpected shortages of fuels. The long gasoline lines impressed in the minds of Americans that our energy-rich future with non-renewable resources is limited. The modelling of ecosystems, population growth, urban development, etc., have continued to raise our awareness that life on earth, including renewable resources, is indeed fragile. Contrary to popular belief, even wood and wood products are not limitless.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781468411188
Publisher: Springer US
Publication date: 03/14/2012
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1982
Pages: 519
Product dimensions: 7.01(w) x 10.00(h) x 0.04(d)

Table of Contents

I. Biogenesis.- 1 A Cytological Model of Cellulose Biogenesis in the Alga Oocystis apiculata.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Microfibril Assembly.- 3. Microfibril Orientation.- 4. Discussion.- 5. Concluding Remarks.- References.- 2 Organized Microfibril Assembly in Higher Plant Cells.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Evolution of Ideas about the Organization of Cell Walls.- 3. Positioning and Ordering of Wall Subunits.- 4. Concluding Remarks.- References.- 3 Cell-Wall Formation in Fucus Zygotes: A Model System to Study the Assembly and Localization of Wall Polymers.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Experimental System.- 3. Experimental Framework and Questions.- References.- 4 Cell-Wall Regeneration by Protoplasts Isolated from Higher Plants.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Studies of the Regenerated Wall: Perspective.- 3. Cellulose Microfibrils.- 4. Cell-Wall Constituents Other Than Cellulose.- References.- 5 Cellulose-Microfibril Assembly and Orientation in Higher Plant Cells with Particular Reference to Seedlings of Zea mays.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Factors That Affect the Visualization of Terminal Complexes.- 3. Oriented Microfibril Deposition.- 4. Unidirectional Microfibril Deposition.- 5. Experimental Procedures.- 6. Influence of Cytoplasmic Structures on Microfibril Deposition.- 7. Conclusions.- References.- 6 Microfibril-Tip Growth and the Development of Pattern in Cell Walls.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Glaucocystis nostochinearum.- 3. Cotton Fibers.- 4. Conclusions.- References.- 7 The Role of the Golgi Apparatus in the Biosynthesis of Natural Polymer Systems with Particular Reference to Cellulose.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Pleurochrysis: A Model System for Golgi-Derived Cellulose.- 3. Relationship of Pleurochrysis to Other Systems.- 4. Concluding Remarks.- References.- 8 Interaction of Cell-Wall Formation and Cell Division in Higher Plant Cells.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Experimental Data with Tobacco Mesophyll Protoplasts.- 3. Discussion.- 4. Conclusions.- References.- 9 Callose-Deposit Formation in Radish Root Hairs.- 1. Introduction.- 2. UDP-Glucose-Incubated Root Hairs.- 3. Discussion.- 4. Summary.- References.- 10 Chitin-Fibril Formation in Algae.- 1. Introduction.- 2. ?-Chitin-Fibril Formation of the Centric Diatoms Cyclotella and Thalassiosira.- 3. Lorica Microfibrils of Poterioochromonas.- 4. Conclusions.- References.- 11 Synthesis of Chitin Microfibrils in Vitro.- 1. Introduction.- 2. General Properties of Chitin Synthetase.- 3. Effect of Nucleosides and Nucleotides.- 4. Polyoxins.- 5. Activation and Inactivation of Chitin Synthetase.- 6. Autogenous Inhibitors of Chitin Synthetase.- 7. Biosynthesis of Chitin Microfibrils.- 8. Chitosomes and Chitin Biosynthesis.- 9. Dissociated Forms of Chitin Synthetase.- 10. On the Mechanism of Chitin-Chain Formation.- 11. Perspectives and Future Developments.- References.- 12 Cellulose Synthesis in Detached Cotton Fibers.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Criteria for Cell-Free Synthesis of Cellulose.- 3. Why Is Cellulose Synthesis Lost on Homogenization of Plant Tissues?.- 4. Protection of Cellulose Synthesis in Detached Cotton Fibers.- 5. Role of Polyethylene Glycol in the Protection of Cellulose Synthesis.- 6. Does Cellulose Synthesis Require a Membrane Potential?.- 7. Where Do We Go from Here?.- References.- 13 The Control of Molecular Weight and Molecular-Weight Distribution in the Biogenesis of Cellulose.- 1. Introduction to the Concepts of Molecular Weight and Molecular-Weight Distribution and Their Relationships to the Polymerization Mechanism.- 2. Molecular Weight and Molecular-Weight Distribution in the Biogenesis of Cellulose.- 3. Discussion.- References.- 14 Biogenesis of Cellulose I Microfibrils Occurs by Cell-Directed Self-Assembly in Acetobacter xylinum.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Acetobacter xylinum as a Model System for Cellulose Biogenesis.- 3. Effect of Calcofluor White ST on Cellulose Biogenesis.- 4. Effect of Carboxymethylcellulose on Cellulose Biogenesis.- 5. Cellulose Microfibrils Are Synthesized by Cell-Directed Self-Assembly in Acetobacter xylinum.- 6. Does Cell-Directed Crystallization Occur in Other Organisms?.- 7. Theoretical Implications of Cell-Directed Self-Assembly.- References.- 15 A Study of the Polymerization Kinetics of Bacterial Cellulose through Gel-Permeation Chromatography.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Bacterial-Cellulose Production.- 3. Theoretical and Experimental Objectives.- 4. Poisson Polymerization Function.- 5. Experimental Procedures.- 6. Results and Discussion.- 7. Conclusions.- 8. Nomenclature.- References.- 16 Does ?-Glucan Synthesis Need a Primer?.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Results.- 3. Discussion and Conclusions.- References.- 17 Intermediates of Cellulose Synthesis in Acetobacter.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Studies with Whole Cells.- 3. Studies with Cell-Free Preparations.- 4. Inhibitors of Cellulose Synthesis.- 5. General Assessment.- References.- 18 Protein Glycosylation in Higher Plants: Recent Developments.- 1. Introduction.- 2. In Vitro Glycosylation Systems from Higher Plants.- 3. The Evidence for Core Glycosylation In Vitro.- 4. Glycosylation by Pathways Other Than Oligosaccharide Transfer from Lipid-Oligosaccharide.- 5. Glycoprotein Products of the In Vitro Systems.- 6. Subcellular Localization.- 7. Other Aspects.- References.- II. Structure.- 19 The Structure of Cellulose Microfibrils in Valonia.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Dimensions of Cellulose Microfibrils.- 3. Cross-Sectional View of Cellulose Microfibrils.- 4. Internal Structure of Cellulose Microfibrils.- References.- 20 The Macromolecular Organization of Cellulose and Chitin.- 1. Introduction.- 2. X-Ray Diffraction of Fibrous Polymers.- 3. Polymorphic Structures of Cellulose.- 4. X-Ray Studies of the Structures of Cellulose.- 5. Chitin.- References.- 21 Comparisons between Synthetic and Natural Microfiber Systems.- 1. Introduction: Fibers, Fibrils, and the Ultimate Fibril.- 2. Synthetic Fiber-Forming Technologies: Common Characteristics.- 3. Specific Fiber-Forming Processes.- 4. Direct Fibril-Forming Processes.- 5. Fibrils in Natural Fibers—Comparison and Integration with Synthetic Systems.- 6. Fibril Formation: Anisotropic Fluids and Solidification.- 7. Discussion: Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics.- References.- III. Degradation.- 22 ?-Glucanases in Higher Plants: Localization, Potential Functions, and Regulation.- 1. Introduction.- 2. ?1,3-Glucanases.- 3. ?1,4-Glucanase (Cellulase).- 4. Regulation of ?-Glucanases.- References.- 23 Visualization of Cellulases and Cellulose Degradation.- 1. Introduction.- 2. High-Resolution Electron Microscopy of Cellulase Components.- 3. Cellulose Degradation by the Complete Cellulase Enzyme System.- 4. Cellulose Degradation by Purified and Reconstituted Cellulase Components.- 5. Conclusions and Future Perspectives.- References.

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