Child Protection Systems in the United Kingdom: A Comparative Analysis

Child Protection Systems in the United Kingdom: A Comparative Analysis


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Child Protection systems differ across the four countries of the United Kingdom and Understanding the differencess provides Important opportunities for learning and improving day to day practice.

This authoritative book compares UK child protection systems with other systems world as well as scrutinising and comparing the systems in different systems the UK Reflecting on the impact of devolution the authors consider and critically analysis the way child protection systems are being developed thought about and put into practice in. England Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland An in to country comparative approach is applied to the main features making up child protection including policy frame works interagency guidance the role of local safeguarding Children Boards and Area Child Protection Committees child deaths and serious Case Review Processes and vetting and barring legislation and systems. The authors also consider the protection the unique position occupied by England and explore future directions for child protection across the UK.

This importance book will be of considerable interest to child welfare policy makers, academics researchers practice and students.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781849050678
Publisher: Kingsley, Jessica Publishers
Publication date: 11/15/2011
Pages: 256
Product dimensions: 5.90(w) x 8.90(h) x 0.70(d)

About the Author

Anne Stafford is Director of The University of Edinburgh/NSPCC Centre for UK-wide Learning in Child Protection (the Centre), University of Edinburgh, UK. She has worked in the areas of children and child protection policy and practice for many years and has written and researched extensively in this area. Nigel Parton is NSPCC Professor in Applied Childhood Studies, University of Huddersfield, UK and Visiting Professor at the Centre. He has been writing and researching in the areas of child protection and child welfare for over 30 years. Sharon Vincent is Research Fellow at the Centre and has been involved in research relating to child protection and child welfare for over 10 years. Connie Smith is Research and Policy Analyst at the Centre and has worked in policy and research both in the public and voluntary sectors for many years.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements 9

1 Introduction: About this Book 11

1.1 Part 1 Introduction and context 11

1.2 Part 2 Child protection processes and structures 13

Part 1 Introduction and Context 15

2 Context and Drivers of Policy Change in Child Protection across the UK 12

2.1 Introduction 17

2.2 The policy making process 17

a Macro-level analysis 18

b Meso-levd analysis 22

c Micro-level analysis 26

2.3 The role of the media 27

2.4 Conclusion 31

3 Child Protection across the UK in an International Context 32

3.1 Introduction 32

3.2 The growing crisis in child protection 33

3.3 Comparing child protection systems 39

3.4 Updating child protection orientations 50

3.5 Conclusion 54

4 Learning by Comparing: Some Conceptual and Methodological Issues in Conducting Comparative Research 56

4.1 Introduction 56

4.2 Comparison and public policy 57

4.3 Learning and public policy 61

4.4 Learning from difference: Comparing child welfare and child protection systems 64

4.5 Comparative social policy: Differing methodological approaches 66

4.6 The comparative and 'transnational twist': The moves towards devolution 68

a Comparing policy in a devolved UK: Nation-building and welfare 71

4.7 Devolved powers in the UK 75

a The Scottish Parliament and Scottish Executive 75

b The Northern Ireland Assembly and Executive 76

c The National Assembly for Wales and the Welsh Assembly Government 76

d England and the UK Parliament 77

e Opportunities and pressure for policy divergence and convergence 78

4.8 Conclusion 80

Part 2 Child Protection Processes and Structures 81

5 Policies and Procedures to Protect Children across the UK 83

5.1 Introduction 83

5.2 Overarching children's policy and outcomes frameworks 83

5.3 Key legislation 86

5.4 Inter-agency child protection guidance 89

a Definitions used in the guidance 92

5.5 Key structures for protecting children 94

5.6 Inspection processes 101

5.7 Conclusion 106

6 Managing Individual Cases where there are Child Protection Concerns 109

6.1 Introduction 109

6.2 Responding to concerns and making a referral 111

6.3 Initial investigation and assessment|op114

6.4 Emergency protection 116

6.5 Case conference 120

6.6 Registration 122

6.7 Review and de-registration 128

6.8 Sharing information where there are child protection concerns 130

a Guidance on information sharing 130

b Sharing information with consent 131

c Sharing information without consent 132

d When consent should not be sought 134

6.9 Protecting children in specific circumstances 134

6.10 Conclusion 135

7 Assessment Frameworks 140

7.1 Introduction 140

7.2 England and Wales 141

a The Orange Book 141

b The Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and their Families 141

c The impact of the assessment framework on practice 143

d The Common Assessment Framework England 144

e The Common Assessment Framework Wales 146

f The implementation of CAF and its impact on practice 147

7.3 Scotland 149

a The My World Triangle 149

b The impact of the GIRFEC assessment model on practice 151

7.4 Northern Ireland 152

a Understanding the Needs of Children in Northern Ireland assessment framework 152

7.5 The effectiveness of assessment frameworks 155

7.6 The future of assessment frameworks 157

7.7 Conclusion 158

8 Child Death Review Processes 161

8.1 Introduction 161

8.2 Processes for investigating deaths from abuse or neglect 161

a Public inquiries 161

8.3 Local review processes 163

8.4 Serious Case Reviews in England and Wales 163

8.5 Recent developments in England 169

8.6 Recent developments in Wales 171

8.7 Case Management Review in Northern Ireland 173

8.8 Significant Case Reviews in Scotland 174

8.9 Wider child death review processes 176

a England 177

b Wales 180

c Northern Ireland 181

d Scotland 181

8.10 The effectiveness of child death review processes 182

8.11 Conclusion 189

9 Child Protection and Offender Management Systems across the UK 191

9.1 Introduction 191

9.2 Offender management systems 192

a Multi-agency Public Protection Arrangements 92

b Structures 193

c Coverage 194

d Activities 197

e Conclusion 201

9.3 Vetting and barring arrangements across the UK 201

a The purpose of vetting and barring 202

b The expansion of the vetting and barring arrangements in the UK 202

9.4 Vetting and barring arrangements in England, Wales and Northern Ireland 203

a Vetting 203

b Barring 204

c The Children's List 205

d Definitions of posts and organisations covered by the barring requirements 205

e Referring to the Children's List 207

f Decisions about referring to the Children's List 208

g The current situation 209

9.5 Protection of vulnerable groups in Scotland 209

a Duties and circumstances of referrals to the Children's List 211

b Decision about whether a referred person should be Listed 211

c Establishing fan individual is on a Barred List 212

9.6 Conclusion 213

10 Summary and Conclusion: Child Protection across the UK 214

10.1 Introduction 214

10.2 Contexts and drivers of policy change in child protection 214

10.3 Child protection across the UK in an international context 215

10.4 Learning by comparin 217

10.5 Policies and procedures for safeguarding and protecting children across the UK 219

10.6 Managing individual cases where there are child protection concerns 222

10.7 Assessment frameworks 224

10.8 Child death review processes 226

10.9 Offender management systems 227

10.10 The future of child protection in the UK 228

Appendix: Legislation Regarding Child Protection and Emergency Orders 231

References 236

Subject Index 249

Author Index 254

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