This is the eBook version of the print title. Note that the eBook does not provide access to the practice test software that accompanies the print book. Access to the digital edition of the Cram Sheet is available through product registration at Pearson IT Certification; or see instructions in back pages of your eBook.
CISSP Exam Cram, Third Edition, is the perfect study guide to help you pass the tough new electronic version of the CISSP exam. It provides coverage and practice questions for every exam topic, including substantial new coverage of encryption, cloud security, information lifecycles, security management/governance, and more. The book contains an extensive set of preparation tools, such as quizzes, Exam Alerts, and two practice exams.
· Covers the critical information you’ll need to pass the CISSP exam!
· Enforce effective physical security throughout your organization
· Apply reliable authentication, authorization, and accountability
· Design security architectures that can be verified, certified, and accredited
· Understand the newest attacks and countermeasures
· Use encryption to safeguard data, systems, and networks
· Systematically plan and test business continuity/disaster recovery programs
· Protect today’s cloud, web, and database applications
· Address global compliance issues, from privacy to computer forensics
· Develop software that is secure throughout its entire lifecycle
· Implement effective security governance and risk management
· Use best-practice policies, procedures, guidelines, and controls
· Ensure strong operational controls, from background checks to security audits
About the Author
As the founder and president of Superior Solutions, Inc., a Houston-based IT security consulting and auditing firm, Michael Gregg has more than 20 years of experience in information security and risk management. He holds two associate’s degrees, a bachelor’s degree, and a master’s degree. Some of the certifications he holds include CISA, CISSP, MCSE, CTT+, A+, N+, Security+, CASP, CCNA, GSEC, CEH, CHFI, CEI, CISA, CISM, CGEIT, and SSCP.
In addition to his experience with performing security audits and assessments, Gregg has authored or coauthored more than 15 books, including Certified Ethical Hacker Exam Prep (Que), CISSP Exam Cram 2 (Que), and Security Administrator Street Smarts (Sybex). He is a site expert for TechTarget.com websites, such as SearchNetworking.com. He also serves on their editorial advisory board. His articles have been published on IT websites and he has been quoted on Fox News and the in the New York Times. He has created more than 15 security-related courses and training classes for various companies and universities. Although audits and assessments are where he spends the bulk of his time, teaching and contributing to the written body of IT security knowledge are how Michael believes he can give something back to the community that has given him so much.
He is a board member for Habitat for Humanity and when not working, Michael enjoys traveling and restoring muscle cars.
Table of Contents
Introduction. . . . 1
How to Prepare for the Exam. . . 1
Practice Tests . . . 2
Taking a Certification Exam . . . 2
Arriving at the Exam Location . . 2
In the Testing Center . . . 3
After the Exam. . . 3
Retaking a Test . . . 3
Tracking Your CISSP Status . . 3
About This Book. . . 4
The Chapter Elements. . . 4
Other Book Elements. . . 7
Chapter Contents . . . 7
Pearson IT Certification Practice Test Engine and Questions on the CD . . . . 9
Install the Software from the CD. . 10
Activate and Download the Practice Exam . . 11
Activating Other Exams . . . 11
Contacting the Author . . . 12
Self-Assessment. . . 12
CISSPs in the Real World . . . 12
The Ideal CISSP Candidate . . 12
Put Yourself to the Test . . . 13
After the Exam . . . 15
Chapter 1: The CISSP Certification Exam . . . 17
Introduction. . . . 18
Assessing Exam Readiness . . . 18
Taking the Exam . . . 19
Multiple-Choice Question Format . . 21
Exam Strategy . . . 21
Question-Handling Strategies . . . 22
Mastering the Inner Game . . . 23
Need to Know More? . . . 24
Chapter 2: Physical Security . . . . 25
Introduction. . . . 26
Physical Security Risks. . . 26
Natural Disasters. . . 27
Man-Made Threats. . . 28
Technical Problems. . . 28
Facility Concerns and Requirements . . 29
CPTED . . . 30
Area Concerns . . . 30
Location . . . 31
Construction . . . 32
Doors, Walls, Windows, and Ceilings . . 32
Asset Placement. . . 35
Physical Port Controls . . . 36
Perimeter Controls. . . 36
Fences . . . . 36
Gates. . . . 38
Bollards. . . . 39
CCTV Cameras . . . 40
Lighting . . . 41
Guards and Dogs . . . 42
Locks. . . . 43
Employee Access Control . . . 46
Badges, Tokens, and Cards . . 47
Biometric Access Controls. . . 48
Environmental Controls . . . 49
Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning . . 50
Electrical Power . . . 51
Uninterruptible Power Supply . . 52
Equipment Life Cycle . . . 53
Fire Prevention, Detection, and Suppression . . 53
Fire-Detection Equipment . . 54
Fire Suppression . . . 54
Alarm Systems . . . 57
Intrusion Detection Systems . . 57
Monitoring and Detection. . . 58
Exam Prep Questions. . . 60
Answers to Exam Prep Questions . . 62
Suggested Reading and Resources . . 64
Chapter 3: Access Control Systems and Methodology. . 65
Introduction. . . . 66
Identification, Authentication, and Authorization . . 67
Authentication . . . 67
Access Management . . . 79
Single Sign-On . . . 80
Kerberos. . . 81
SESAME . . . 83
Authorization and Access Controls Techniques . . 84
Discretionary Access Control . . 84
Mandatory Access Control . . 85
Role-Based Access Control . . 87
Other Types of Access Controls . . 88
Access Control Methods . . . 89
Centralized Access Control . . 89
Decentralized Access Control . . 92
Access Control Types . . . 93
Administrative Controls. . . 93
Technical Controls . . . 94
Physical Controls . . . 94
Access Control Categories. . . 95
Audit and Monitoring . . . 96
Monitoring Access and Usage. . 96
Intrusion Detection Systems . . 97
Intrusion Prevention Systems . . 101
Network Access Control . . . 102
Keystroke Monitoring . . . 102
Emanation Security . . . 103
Access Control Attacks. . . 104
Unauthorized Access . . . 104
Access Aggregation . . . 105
Password Attacks. . . 105
Spoofing . . . 109
Sniffing . . . 109
Eavesdropping and Shoulder Surfing. . 110
Wiretapping. . . 110
Identity Theft . . . 110
Denial of Service Attacks . . . 111
Distributed Denial of Service Attacks . . 113
Botnets . . . 113
Exam Prep Questions. . . 116
Answers to Exam Prep Questions . . 119
Suggesting Reading and Resources . . 121
Chapter 4: Cryptography. . . . 123
Introduction. . . . 124
Cryptographic Basics . . . 124
History of Encryption . . . 127
Steganography. . . 132
Steganography Operation . . 133
Digital Watermark . . . 134
Algorithms . . . . 135
Cipher Types and Methods . . . 137
Symmetric Encryption . . . 137
Data Encryption Standard. . 140
Triple-DES . . . 144
Advanced Encryption Standard. . 145
International Data Encryption Algorithm. . 146
Rivest Cipher Algorithms . . 146
Asymmetric Encryption . . . 147
Diffie-Hellman . . . 149
RSA. . . . 150
El Gamal . . . 151
Elliptical Curve Cryptosystem . . 152
Merkle-Hellman Knapsack . . 152
Review of Symmetric and Asymmetric Cryptographic Systems . . . 153
Hybrid Encryption . . . 153
Integrity and Authentication. . . 154
Hashing and Message Digests. . 155
Digital Signatures . . . 158
Cryptographic System Review . . 159
Public Key Infrastructure . . . 160
Certificate Authority . . . 160
Registration Authority . . . 161
Certificate Revocation List . . 161
Digital Certificates . . . 161
The Client’s Role in PKI . . . 163
Email Protection Mechanisms . . . 164
Pretty Good Privacy. . . 164
Other Email Security Applications. . 165
Securing TCP/IP with Cryptographic Solutions. . 165
Application/Process Layer Controls . . 166
Host to Host Layer Controls . . 167
Internet Layer Controls. . . 168
Network Access Layer Controls . . 170
Link and End-to-End Encryption . . 170
Cryptographic Attacks . . . 171
Exam Prep Questions. . . 175
Answers to Exam Prep Questions . . 178
Need to Know More? . . . 180
Chapter 5: Security Architecture and Models . . . 181
Introduction. . . . 182
Computer System Architecture . . 182
Central Processing Unit . . . 182
Storage Media . . . 186
I/O Bus Standards. . . 189
Hardware Cryptographic Components . . 190
Virtual Memory and Virtual Machines . . 190
Computer Configurations . . 191
Security Architecture . . . 192
Protection Rings . . . 192
Trusted Computer Base . . . 194
Open and Closed Systems . . 197
Security Modes of Operation . . 197
Operating States . . . 199
Recovery Procedures . . . 199
Process Isolation . . . 200
Security Models . . . 201
State Machine Model . . . 202
Information Flow Model . . . 203
Noninterference Model . . . 203
Confidentiality. . . 203
Integrity . . . 204
Other Models . . . 208
Documents and Guidelines . . . 208
The Rainbow Series . . . 209
The Red Book: Trusted Network Interpretation . 211
Information Technology Security Evaluation Criteria . 212
Common Criteria . . . 212
System Validation . . . 214
Certification and Accreditation. . 215
Governance and Enterprise Architecture . . 216
Security Architecture Threats. . . 219
Buffer Overflow . . . 219
Back Doors . . . 220
Asynchronous Attacks . . . 220
Covert Channels . . . 221
Incremental Attacks . . . 221
Exam Prep Questions. . . 223
Answers to Exam Prep Questions . . 226
Need to Know More? . . . 228
Chapter 6: Telecommunications and Network Security . . 229
Introduction. . . . 230
Network Models and Standards . . 230
OSI Model . . . 231
Encapsulation/De-Encapsulation . . 237
TCP/IP . . . . 238
Network Access Layer . . . 238
Internet Layer . . . 239
Host-to-Host (Transport) Layer. . 243
Application Layer . . . 245
LANs and Their Components . . . 249
LAN Communication Protocols . . 250
Network Topologies . . . 251
LAN Cabling. . . 253
Network Types . . . 255
Communication Standards . . . 256
Network Equipment. . . 257
Repeaters . . . 257
Hubs . . . . 257
Bridges . . . 257
Switches . . . 258
VLANs . . . 259
Routers . . . 260
Brouters . . . 261
Gateways . . . 261
Routing. . . . 262
WANs and Their Components . . 264
Packet Switching. . . 264
Circuit Switching . . . 266
Cloud Computing. . . 270
Voice Communications and Wireless Communications . 271
Voice over IP . . . 271
Cell Phones . . . 272
802.11 Wireless Networks and Standards . . 274
Network Security . . . 281
Firewalls . . . 282
Demilitarized Zone. . . 283
Firewall Design . . . 285
Remote Access. . . 285
Point-to-Point Protocol. . . 286
Virtual Private Networks . . . 287
Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service . 288
Terminal Access Controller Access Control System . 288
IPSec. . . . 288
Message Privacy . . . 289
Threats to Network Security . . . 290
DoS Attacks . . . 290
Distributed Denial of Service . . 291
Disclosure Attacks. . . 291
Destruction, Alteration, or Theft . . 292
Exam Prep Questions. . . 295
Answers to Exam Prep Questions . . 298
Need to Know More? . . . 299
Chapter 7: Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery Planning. . 301
Introduction. . . . 302
Threats to Business Operations . . 302
Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity Management . 303
Project Management and Initiation . . 305
Business Impact Analysis . . . 307
Recovery Strategy . . . 313
Plan Design and Development . . 327
Implementation. . . 330
Testing . . . 331
Monitoring and Maintenance . . 333
Disaster Life Cycle . . . 334
Teams and Responsibilities . . 336
Exam Prep Questions. . . 338
Answers to Exam Prep Questions . . 341
Need to Know More? . . . 343
Chapter 8: Legal, Regulations, Investigations, and Compliance . . 345
Introduction. . . . 346
United States Legal System and Laws. . 346
International Legal Systems and Laws . . 347
International Property Laws . . . 349
Piracy and Issues with Copyrights . . 350
Privacy Laws and Protection of Personal Information . 351
Privacy Impact Assessment . . 353
Computer Crime Laws . . . 354
Regulatory Compliance and Process Control. . 354
Ethics . . . . 355
ISC2 Code of Ethics. . . 356
Computer Ethics Institute . . 357
Internet Architecture Board . . 357
NIST 800-14. . . 358
Computer Crime and Criminals. . 359
Pornography . . . 361
Well-Known Computer Crimes . . 362
How Computer Crime Has Changed . . 363
Attack Vectors . . . 364
Keystroke Logging . . . 365
Wiretapping. . . 365
Spoofing Attacks . . . 366
Manipulation Attacks . . . 367
Social Engineering . . . 367
Dumpster Diving . . . 368
Investigating Computer Crime. . . 368
Computer Crime Jurisdiction . . 369
Incident Response. . . 369
Forensics . . . . 374
Standardization of Forensic Procedures . . 375
Computer Forensics . . . 376
Investigations. . . 381
Search, Seizure, and Surveillance . . 381
Interviews and Interrogations . . 381
Honeypots and Honeynets . . 381
Evidence Types . . . 383
Trial . . . . 384
The Evidence Life Cycle . . . 384
Exam Prep Questions. . . 385
Answers to Exam Prep Questions . . 388
Need to Know More? . . . 390
Chapter 9: Software Development Security . . . 391
Introduction. . . . 392
Software Development. . . 392
Avoiding System Failure . . . 393
The System Development Life Cycle . . 394
System Development Methods. . . 402
The Waterfall Model . . . 402
The Spiral Model . . . 402
Joint Application Development . . 403
Rapid Application Development. . 404
Incremental Development . . 404
Prototyping . . . 404
Computer-Aided Software Engineering . . 405
Agile Development Methods. . 405
Capability Maturity Model . . 406
Scheduling . . . 407
Change Management . . . 408
Programming Languages. . . 409
Object-Oriented Programming . . 412
CORBA . . . 413
Database Management. . . 413
Database Terms. . . 414
Integrity . . . 416
Transaction Processing. . . 416
Data Warehousing . . . 416
Data Mining . . . 417
Knowledge Management . . . 418
Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems. . 418
Malicious Code . . . 419
Viruses . . . 420
Worms . . . 421
Spyware . . . 422
Back Doors and Trapdoors . . 423
Change Detection. . . 423
Mobile Code . . . 424
Financial Attacks . . . 424
Buffer Overflow . . . 424
Input Validation and Injection Attacks . . 426
Exam Prep Questions. . . 429
Answers to Exam Prep Questions . . 432
Need to Know More? . . . 434
Chapter 10: Information Security Governance and Risk Management . . 435
Introduction. . . . 436
Basic Security Principles . . . 436
Security Management and Governance. . 438
Asset Identification . . . 440
Risk Assessment . . . 441
Risk Management . . . 442
Policies Development. . . 458
Security Policy. . . 459
Standards . . . 461
Baselines . . . 461
Guidelines . . . 461
Procedures . . . 462
Data Classification . . . 462
Implementation. . . 465
Roles and Responsibility . . . 465
Security Controls . . . 467
Training and Education . . . 469
Security Awareness . . . 470
Social Engineering . . . 471
Auditing Your Security Infrastructure . . 472
The Risk of Poor Security Management. . 474
Exam Prep Questions. . . 475
Answers to Exam Prep Questions . . 478
Need to Know More? . . . 480
Chapter 11: Security Operations . . . 481
Introduction. . . . 482
Security Operations . . . 482
Employee Recruitment . . . 483
New-Hire Orientation . . . 484
Separation of Duties. . . 484
Job Rotation. . . 485
Least Privilege. . . 485
Mandatory Vacations . . . 486
Termination . . . 486
Accountability . . . 486
Controls . . . . 488
Security Controls . . . 489
Operational Controls . . . 490
Auditing and Monitoring. . . 498
Auditing . . . 498
Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) . 499
Monitoring Controls . . . 499
Clipping Levels . . . 501
Intrusion Detection . . . 501
Keystroke Monitoring . . . 502
Antivirus . . . 503
Facility Access Control . . . 504
Telecommunication Controls . . . 504
Fax. . . . 505
PBX. . . . 506
Email. . . . 507
Backup, Fault Tolerance, and Recovery Controls . . 509
Backups. . . 509
Fault Tolerance . . . 511
RAID . . . . 513
Recovery Controls . . . 515
Security Assessments . . . 516
Policy Reviews. . . 516
Vulnerability Scanning . . . 517
Penetration Testing. . . 518
Operational Security Threats and Vulnerabilities . . 521
Common Attack Methodologies. . 522
Attack Terms and Techniques . . 524
Exam Prep Questions. . . 526
Answers to Exam Prep Questions . . 529
Need to Know More? . . . 531
Practice Exam I. . . . 533
Practice Exam Questions. . . 533
Answers to Practice Exam I . . . 547
Practice Exam II . . . . 563
Practice Exam Questions. . . 563
Answers to Practice Exam II . . . 577
TOC, 9780789749574, 11/2/2012
Welcome to CISSP Exam Cram! This book covers the CISSP certification exam. Whether this is your first or your fifteenth Exam Cram, you’ll find information here and in Chapter 1 that will ensure your success as you pursue knowledge, experience, and certification. This introduction explains the ISC2 certification programs in general and talks about how the Exam Cram series can help you prepare for the CISSP exam.
This book is one of the Exam Cram series of books and will help by getting you on you way to becoming an ISC2 Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP).
This introduction discusses the basics of the CISSP exam. Included are sections covering preparation, how to take an exam, a description of this book’s contents, how this book is organized, and, finally, author contact information.
Each chapter in this book contains practice questions. There are also two full-length practice exams at the end of the book. Practice exams in this book should provide an accurate assessment of the level of expertise you need to obtain to pass the test. Answers and explanations are included for all test questions. It is best to obtain a level of understanding equivalent to a consistent pass rate of at least 95% or more on the practice questions and exams in this book before you attempt the real exam.
Let’s begin by looking at preparation for the exam.
How to Prepare for the Exam
Preparingfor the CISSP exam requires that you obtain and study materials designed to provide comprehensive information about security. The following list of materials will help you study and prepare:
- The ISC2 website at http://www.ISC2.org
- The study guide available at the ISC2 website
- The CISSP open study guide website at http://www.cccure.org
Many people form study groups, attend seminars, and training classes to help them study for and master the material needed to pass the CISSP exam.
You don’t need to know much about practice tests, other than that they are a worthwhile expense for three reasons:
- They help you diagnose areas of weakness.
- They are useful for getting used to the format of questions.
- They help you to decide when you are ready to take the exam.
This book contains questions at the end of each chapter and includes two full-length practice tests. However, if you still want more, a related Exam Cram CISSP Practice Questions book has more than 500 additional questions. The questions are in paper form so that you can practice in an environment similar to the real exam; they are also available electronically as a practice test CD in the back of the book. Many other companies provide CISSP certification practice tests as well.
Taking a Certification Exam
When you have prepared for the exam, you must register with ISC2 to take the exam. The CISSP exam is given throughout the year at various locations. You can find the latest schedule at https://http://www.ISC2.org/cgi-bin/exam_schedule.cgi?displaycategory=1182. Many people decide to travel to the exam location; others wait until it is given at a location closer to them. ISC2 has implemented regional pricing: As an example, early registration is $499 in the United States, compared to standard registration of $599. Check the ISC2 website at https://www.ISC2.org/uploadedFiles/Downloads/exam_pricing.pdf to get specific details.
You can register for an exam done online, by mail, or by fax. The online form is available at http://www.ISC2.org/certification-register-now.aspx. After you register, you will receive a confirmation notice.
Arriving at the Exam Location
As with any examination, arrive at the testing center early. Be prepared! You will need to bring the confirmation letter and identification such as a driver’s license, green card, or passport. Any photo ID will suffice. Two forms of ID are usually required. The testing center staff requires proof that you are who you say you are and that someone else is not taking the test for you. Arrive early as if you are late you will be barred from entry and will not receive a refund for the cost of the exam.
Warning - You’ll be spending a lot of time in the exam room. The total test time is 6 hours, so eat a good breakfast and take a snack and bottle of water with you to the testing area. Policies differ—some locations might allow you to take the water and energy bar to your desk whereas others might make you place it at the back of the testing area.
In the Exam Room
You will not be allowed to take study materials or anything else into the examination room with you that could raise suspicion that you’re cheating. This includes practice test material, books, exam prep guides, or other test aids.
After the Exam
Examination results are not available after the exam. You must wait up to 4–6 weeks to get your results by email or snail mail. Most individuals receive these rather quickly within 4 weeks or so. If you pass the exam, you will simply receive a passing grade—your exact score will not be provided.
Retaking a Test
If you fail the exam you must wait at least 90 days to retake a failed examination. Candidates that do not pass will receive a complete breakdown on their score. Each of the ten domains will be shown as will the candidates score. As an example, you may have received a 95% score in the telecommunications domain and only 12% in cryptography. Use this feedback to better understand what areas you were weak in and where to spend your time and effort in your studies. Additionally, invest in some practice tests if you have not already done so. There is much to be said for getting used to a testing format.
Tracking Your CISSP Status
When you pass the exam, you still need to attest to the CISSP code of ethics and have an existing CISSP complete an endorsement form for you.
When you receive notice of your passing grade, a blank endorsement form will be sent with it. The endorsement form must be completed by someone who can attest to your professional experience and who is an active CISSP in good standing. If you don’t know anyone who is CISSP certified, ISC2 allows endorsements from other professionals who are certified, licensed, or commissioned, and an officer of the corporation where you are employed. You can review complete information on the endorsement form at the ISC2 website.
About This Book
The ideal reader for an Exam Cram book is someone seeking certification. However, it should be noted that an Exam Cram book is a very easily readable, rapid presentation of facts. Therefore, an Exam Cram book is also extremely useful as a quick reference manual.
Most people seeking certification use multiple sources of information. Check out the links at the end of each chapter to get more information about subjects you’re weak in. Practice tests can help indicate when you are ready. Various security books from retailers also describe the topics in this book in much greater detail. Don’t forget that many have described the CISSP exam as being a “mile wide.”
This book includes other helpful elements in addition to the actual logical, step-by-step learning progression of the chapters themselves. Exam Cram books use elements such as exam alerts, tips, notes, and practice questions to make information easier to read and absorb.
Note - Reading this book from start to finish is not necessary; this book is set up so that you can quickly jump back and forth to find sections you need to study.
Use the Cram Sheet to remember last-minute facts immediately before the exam. Use the practice questions to test your knowledge. You can always brush up on specific topics in detail by referring to the table of contents and the index. Even after you achieve certification, you can use this book as a rapid-access reference manual.
The Chapter Elements
Each Exam Cram book has chapters that follow a predefined structure. This structure makes Exam Cram books easy to read and provides a familiar format for all Exam Cram books. The following elements typically are used:
- Opening hotlists
- Chapter topics
- Exam Alerts
- Exam preparation practice questions and answers
- A “Need to Know More?” section at the end of each chapter
Note - Bulleted lists, numbered lists, tables, and graphics are also used where appropriate. A picture can paint a thousand words sometimes, and tables can help to associate different elements with each other visually.
Now let’s look at each of the elements in detail.
- Opening hotlists—The start of every chapter contains a list of terms you should understand. A second hotlist identifies all the techniques and skills covered in the chapter.
- Chapter topics—Each chapter contains details of all subject matter listed in the table of contents for that particular chapter. The objective of an Exam Cram book is to cover all the important facts without giving too much detail; it is an exam cram. When examples are required, they are included.
- Exam Alerts—Exam Alerts address exam-specific, exam-related information. An Exam Alert addresses content that is particularly important, tricky, or likely to appear on the exam. An Exam Alert looks like this:
- Notes—Notes typically contain useful information that is not directly related to the current topic under consideration. To avoid breaking up the flow of the text, they are set off from the regular text.
- Tips—Tips often provide shortcuts or better ways to do things.
- Sidebars—Sidebars are longer and run beside the text. They often describe real-world examples or situations.
- Cautions—Cautions apply directly to the use of the technology being discussed in the Exam Cram. For example, a Caution might point out that the CER is one of the most important items to examine when examining biometric devices.
- Exam preparation practice questions—At the end of every chapter is a list of at least 10 exam practice questions similar to those in the actual exam. Each chapter contains a list of questions relevant to that chapter, including answers and explanations. Test your skills as you read.
- “Need to Know More?” section—This section at the end of each chapter describes other relevant sources of information. With respect to this chapter, the best place to look for CISSP certification information is at the ISC2 website, http://www.ISC2.org.
Warning - Make sure you remember the different ways in which DES can be implemented and that ECB is considered the weakest form of DES.
Note - This is a note. You have already seen several notes.
Tip - A clipping level is the point at which you set a control to distinguish between activity that should be investigated and activity that should not be investigated.
How Caller ID Can Be Hacked - Sure, we all trust Caller ID, but some Voice over IP (VoIP) providers allow users to inject their own Call Party Number (CPN) into the call. Because VoIP is currently outside FCC regulation, these hacks are now possible.
Caution - The Crossover Error Rate (CER) is the point at which Type 1 errors and Type 2 errors intersect. The lower the CER is, the more accurate the device is.
Other Book Elements
Most of this Exam Cram book on CISSP follows the consistent chapter structure already described. However, there are various, important elements that are not part of the standard chapter format. These elements apply to the entire book as a whole.
- Practice exams—In addition to exam-preparation questions at the end of each chapter, two full practice exams are included at the end of the book.
- Answers and explanations for practice exams—These follow each practice exam, providing answers and explanations to the questions in the exams.
- Glossary—The glossary contains a listing of important terms used in this book with explanations.
- Cram Sheet—The Cram Sheet is a quick-reference, tear-out cardboard sheet of important facts useful for last-minute preparation. Cram sheets often include a simple summary of facts that are most difficult to remember.
- CD—The CD contains the MeasureUp exam-simulation software, which provides multiple test modes that you can use for exam preparation. MeasureUp practice tests are designed to appropriately balance the questions over each technical area (domain) covered by the exam. All concepts from the actual exam are covered thoroughly to ensure you’re prepared for the exam.
The following list provides an overview of the chapters.
- Chapter 1, “The CISSP Certification Exam”—This chapter introduces exam strategies and considerations.
- Chapter 2, “Physical Security”—This chapter details physical security and the threats and countermeasures available for protecting an organization’s resources. Physical security plays a key role in securing an organization’s assets. Without effective physical security, there can be no effective security structure in place.
- Chapter 3, “Access Control Systems and Methodology”—This chapter covers the basics of access control. This chapter addresses the three A’s: authentication, authorization, and accountability. Items such as identification, single sign-on, centralized authentication, and the role of technical, administrative, and physical controls are discussed.
- Chapter 4, “Cryptography”—This chapter discusses the methods, means, and systems used to encrypt and protect data. Symmetric, asymmetric, and hashing algorithms are introduced, along with PKI and cryptographic methods of attack.
- Chapter 5, “Security Architecture and Models”—This chapter discusses key concepts such as computer hardware, operating system design, security models, and documentation used to verify, certify, and accredited systems and networks.
- Chapter 6, “Telecommunications and Network Security”—This chapter discusses telecommunication technology. Items such as the OSI model, TCP/IP, network equipment, LAN, MAN, and WAN protocols, and wireless technologies are just a few of the items discussed. This is the most expansive domain and considered one of the most critical for the CISSP candidate to master.
- Chapter 7, “Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery Planning”—This chapter covers all the aspects of the BCP and DRP process. Although some may discount the importance the importance of this domain, events such as 9/11 demonstrate the critically of this domain. This chapter addresses key elements of disaster recovery and business continuity. One important item is that no demonstrated recovery exists until the plan has been tested. Exam candidates must understand what is needed to prevent, minimize, and recover from disasters.
- Chapter 8, “Legal Regulations, Compliance, and Investigations”—This chapter covers all legal issues from a global perspective. Readers must understand issues such as privacy and the transnational flow of information. Ethics are also discussed because CISSP candidates must understand and abide by the ISC2 code of ethics. Incident response and computer forensics are introduced in this chapter because readers must understand how to deal with the potential of computer crime.
- Chapter 9, “Applications and Systems-Development Security”—This chapter discusses databases, the system development life cycle and the importance of building security into applications and systems as early as possible during the development process. Project management is reviewed, as are malicious code, knowledge-based systems, and application issues.
- Chapter 10, “Information Security and Risk Management Practices”—This chapter discusses asset management and the protection of critical resources. Quantitative and qualitative risk assessment are two major topics of this chapter. Readers must understand how these concepts are used to assess and measure risk while reducing threats to the organization. Key concepts include the development of policies, procedures, guidelines, and assorted controls.
- Chapter 11, “Operations Security”—This chapter covers operation controls—that is, the types of controls that the organization can implement. Topics such as background checks, duel controls, mandatory vacations, rotation of duties, and auditing are introduced. This chapter also reviews security assessments, ethical hacking, and vulnerability scanning.
- Chapter 12, Practice Exam I—This is a full-length practice exam.
- Chapter 13, Answers to Practice Exam I—This element contains the answers and explanations for the first practice exam.
- Chapter 14, Practice Exam II—This is a second full-length practice exam.
- Chapter 15, Answers to Practice Exam II—This element contains the answers and explanations for the second practice exam.
Contacting the Author
Hopefully, this book provides you with the tools you need to pass the CISSP exam. Feedback is appreciated. You can contact the author at email@example.com.
Thank you for selecting my book; I have worked to apply the same concepts in this book that I have used in the hundreds of training classes I have taught. Spend your study time wisely and you too can become a CISSP. Good luck on the exam!
This Self-Assessment section enables you to evaluate your readiness to take the CISSP certification exam. It should also help you understand what’s required to obtain the CISSP certification. Are you ready?
CISSPs in the Real World
Security continues to be on everyone’s mind. The CISSP certification continues to be one of the most sought-after security certifications. Increasing numbers of people are studying for and obtaining their CISSP certifications. Congratulations on making the decision to follow in their footsteps. If you are willing to tackle the process seriously and do what it takes to obtain the necessary experience and knowledge, you can pass the exam on the first try.
Tip - You can also assess your CISSP skill set by using the MeasureUp Certification Mode.
The Ideal CISSP Candidate
The CISSP is designed for individuals that are leading, planning, organizing, or controlling the security initiative of an organization. The ideal CISSP candidate is likely to have a 4-year college education and have at least 5–7 years experience in one or more of the 10 CISSP domains. The most applicable degree is in computer science or perhaps a related field. A degree is not a prerequisite for taking the test. However, exam candidates must have a minimum of 5 years of direct full-time security work experience in two or more of the 10 domains. One year of experience can be substituted for a four-year college degree or an approved certification such as Security +. The complete list of approved certifications can be found at https://www.ISC2.org/cgi-bin/content.cgi?page=1016. Don’t be lull-ed into thinking that this is an easy test. Some words of caution might be in order:
- The CISSP exam requires the candidate to absorb a substantial amount of material. The test is 6 hours long and consists of 225 graded questions. Unlike Microsoft exams and most other IT vendor exams, it is not a computer-generated test.
- The pass mark is set high, at 700 points. The individual questions are weighted, which means that harder questions are worth more than easier ones.
- Most of the individuals attempting the exam are familiar with one to three of the domains. This means that studying for the exam can be overwhelming because there is so much material to cover. This book can help by guiding you to the areas in which you are weak or strong.
- To be eligible for the CISSP exam, students are required to have 4 years of experience, or 3 years of experience and a college degree.
Put Yourself to the Test
In this section, you answer some simple questions. The objective is for you to understand exactly how much work and effort you must invest to pass the CISSP certification exam. The simple answer to this question is this: The experience and education you have will dictate how difficult it will be for you to pass. Be honest in your answers or you will end up wasting $500 or more on an exam you were not ready to take. From the beginning, two things should be clear:
- Any educational background in computer science will be helpful, as will other IT certifications you have achieved.
- Hands-on actual experience is not only essential, but also required to obtain this certification.
Your Educational Background
- Do you have a computer science degree?
- Did you attend some type of technical school or computer cram course?
- Have you developed any security policies, performed security audits, performed penetration tests, or developed response plans?
- Do you have a photographic memory?
You’ll have a good basic knowledge needed for 3 or more of the 10 domains, assuming that you finished your degree and your schooling and have some fairly sophisticated computer skills. Subject areas such as application development, networking, and database design are a great help.
This question applies to low-level or short-term computer courses. Many of these courses are extremely basic or focused in one particular area. Although the CISSP exam is not platform specific, training classes that focused on networking, security, hacking, or database design will help you pass the exam.
If yes, you will probably be able to handle about half of the CISSP exam domains.
If yes, you might have a slim chance of passing simply by reading this book, taking some practice exams, and using the Internet to brush up on the subjects you are weak in. However, the goal here is to gain a real understanding of the material. As a CISSP, you might be asked to lead, plan, organize, or control your organization’s security operations; if that happens, you’ll need a real understanding of how the various technologies and techniques work. Don’t cheat yourself or gamble with your career.
Again, the education and requirements given here are by no means absolute. Still, an education can give you a very good grounding in any endeavor—the higher the level of education, the better.
Testing Your Exam Readiness
Whether you attend a training class, form a study group, or study on your own, preparing for the CISSP exam is essential. The exam will cost you about $500, depending on where you are located, so you’ll want to do everything you can to make sure you pass on the first try. Reading, studying, and taking practice exams are the best ways to increase your readiness. Practice exams help in a number of ways:
- Practice exams highlight weak spots for further study.
- Practice exams give you a general perspective on the question format. Practicing the questions the way they are asked can help enormously on the actual testing day.
- Two full-length practice exams are provided with this book. Que also publishes a second book, CISSP Practice Questions Exam, with more than 500 practice CISSP test questions; it is an excellent supplement to this book.
After the Exam
After you have passed the exam, you will need to gain continuing education credits each year to maintain your certification. Your certification will come up for renewal every 3 years, so you’ll need to obtain 120 continuing education credits (CPE) or retake the exam. Retaking the exam is probably not a likely choice. These are some ways to gain CPEs to keep your certification current:
- Write a book.
- Read a book. (Only one per year can be used for credit.) This will give you a couple of credits, but not enough to keep your certification current.
- Do volunteer work that is approved by ISC2. When you are certified, you can log on to the ISC2 website for more information. A variety of volunteer work is available, including proctoring the CISSP exam.
- Attend a training class. Just about any type of technology training class is accepted as long as it is tied to one of the domains.
- Teach a training class.
- Attend a college-level security class.
As you can see, the goal here is to help you stay current. As technology changes, we all must continue to learn to keep up the pace.
Now that we have covered some of the ways in which to assess you exam readiness, let’s move on to Chapter 1, “The CISSP Certification Exam,” where you will learn more about how the exam is structured and some effective test-taking strategies.
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