CISSP Exam Cram

CISSP Exam Cram

by Michael Gregg

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Overview

This is the eBook version of the print title. Note that the eBook does not provide access to the practice test software that accompanies the print book. Access to the digital edition of the Cram Sheet is available through product registration at Pearson IT Certification; or see instructions in back pages of your eBook.

 

CISSP Exam Cram, Third Edition, is the perfect study guide to help you pass the tough new electronic version of the CISSP exam. It provides coverage and practice questions for every exam topic, including substantial new coverage of encryption, cloud security, information lifecycles, security management/governance, and more. The book contains an extensive set of preparation tools, such as quizzes, Exam Alerts, and two practice exams.

·          Covers the critical information you’ll need to pass the CISSP exam!

·          Enforce effective physical security throughout your organization

·          Apply reliable authentication, authorization, and accountability

·          Design security architectures that can be verified, certified, and accredited

·          Understand the newest attacks and countermeasures

·          Use encryption to safeguard data, systems, and networks

·          Systematically plan and test business continuity/disaster recovery programs

·          Protect today’s cloud, web, and database applications

·          Address global compliance issues, from privacy to computer forensics

·          Develop software that is secure throughout its entire lifecycle

·          Implement effective security governance and risk management

·          Use best-practice policies, procedures, guidelines, and controls

·          Ensure strong operational controls, from background checks to security audits

 

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780133034141
Publisher: Pearson Education
Publication date: 11/29/2012
Series: Exam Cram
Sold by: Barnes & Noble
Format: NOOK Book
Pages: 640
File size: 28 MB
Note: This product may take a few minutes to download.

About the Author

As the founder and president of Superior Solutions, Inc., a Houston-based IT security consulting and auditing firm, Michael Gregg has more than 20 years of experience in information security and risk management. He holds two associate’s degrees, a bachelor’s degree, and a master’s degree. Some of the certifications he holds include CISA, CISSP, MCSE, CTT+, A+, N+, Security+, CASP, CCNA, GSEC, CEH, CHFI, CEI, CISA, CISM, CGEIT, and SSCP.

 

In addition to his experience with performing security audits and assessments, Gregg has authored or coauthored more than 15 books, including Certified Ethical Hacker Exam Prep (Que), CISSP Exam Cram 2 (Que), and Security Administrator Street Smarts (Sybex). He is a site expert for TechTarget.com websites, such as SearchNetworking.com. He also serves on their editorial advisory board. His articles have been published on IT websites and he has been quoted on Fox News and the in the New York Times. He has created more than 15 security-related courses and training classes for various companies and universities. Although audits and assessments are where he spends the bulk of his time, teaching and contributing to the written body of IT security knowledge are how Michael believes he can give something back to the community that has given him so much.

 

He is a board member for Habitat for Humanity and when not working, Michael enjoys traveling and restoring muscle cars.

Table of Contents

Introduction. . . . 1

    How to Prepare for the Exam. . . 1

        Practice Tests . . . 2

    Taking a Certification Exam . . . 2

        Arriving at the Exam Location . . 2

        In the Testing Center . . . 3

        After the Exam. . . 3

        Retaking a Test . . . 3

        Tracking Your CISSP Status . . 3

    About This Book. . . 4

        The Chapter Elements. . . 4

        Other Book Elements. . . 7

        Chapter Contents . . . 7

    Pearson IT Certification Practice Test Engine and Questions on the CD . . . . 9

        Install the Software from the CD. . 10

        Activate and Download the Practice Exam . . 11

        Activating Other Exams . . . 11

    Contacting the Author . . . 12

    Self-Assessment. . . 12

        CISSPs in the Real World . . . 12

        The Ideal CISSP Candidate . . 12

        Put Yourself to the Test . . . 13

        After the Exam . . . 15

Chapter 1: The CISSP Certification Exam . . . 17

    Introduction. . . . 18

    Assessing Exam Readiness . . . 18

    Taking the Exam . . . 19

    Multiple-Choice Question Format . . 21

    Exam Strategy . . . 21

    Question-Handling Strategies . . . 22

    Mastering the Inner Game . . . 23

    Need to Know More? . . . 24

Chapter 2: Physical Security . . . . 25

    Introduction. . . . 26

    Physical Security Risks. . . 26

        Natural Disasters. . . 27

        Man-Made Threats. . . 28

        Technical Problems. . . 28

    Facility Concerns and Requirements . . 29

        CPTED . . . 30

        Area Concerns . . . 30

        Location . . . 31

        Construction . . . 32

        Doors, Walls, Windows, and Ceilings . . 32

        Asset Placement. . . 35

        Physical Port Controls . . . 36

    Perimeter Controls. . . 36

        Fences . . . . 36

        Gates. . . . 38

        Bollards. . . . 39

        CCTV Cameras . . . 40

        Lighting . . . 41

        Guards and Dogs . . . 42

        Locks. . . . 43

    Employee Access Control . . . 46

        Badges, Tokens, and Cards . . 47

        Biometric Access Controls. . . 48

    Environmental Controls . . . 49

        Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning . . 50

    Electrical Power . . . 51

        Uninterruptible Power Supply . . 52

    Equipment Life Cycle . . . 53

    Fire Prevention, Detection, and Suppression . . 53

        Fire-Detection Equipment . . 54

        Fire Suppression . . . 54

    Alarm Systems . . . 57

        Intrusion Detection Systems . . 57

        Monitoring and Detection. . . 58

    Exam Prep Questions. . . 60

    Answers to Exam Prep Questions . . 62

    Suggested Reading and Resources . . 64

Chapter 3: Access Control Systems and Methodology. . 65

    Introduction. . . . 66

    Identification, Authentication, and Authorization . . 67

        Authentication . . . 67

        Access Management . . . 79

    Single Sign-On . . . 80

        Kerberos. . . 81

        SESAME . . . 83

    Authorization and Access Controls Techniques . . 84

        Discretionary Access Control . . 84

        Mandatory Access Control . . 85

        Role-Based Access Control . . 87

        Other Types of Access Controls . . 88

    Access Control Methods . . . 89

        Centralized Access Control . . 89

        Decentralized Access Control . . 92

    Access Control Types . . . 93

        Administrative Controls. . . 93

        Technical Controls . . . 94

        Physical Controls . . . 94

        Access Control Categories. . . 95

    Audit and Monitoring . . . 96

        Monitoring Access and Usage. . 96

        Intrusion Detection Systems . . 97

        Intrusion Prevention Systems . . 101

        Network Access Control . . . 102

        Keystroke Monitoring . . . 102

        Emanation Security . . . 103

    Access Control Attacks. . . 104

        Unauthorized Access . . . 104

        Access Aggregation . . . 105

        Password Attacks. . . 105

        Spoofing . . . 109

        Sniffing . . . 109

        Eavesdropping and Shoulder Surfing. . 110

        Wiretapping. . . 110

        Identity Theft . . . 110

        Denial of Service Attacks . . . 111

        Distributed Denial of Service Attacks . . 113

        Botnets . . . 113

    Exam Prep Questions. . . 116

    Answers to Exam Prep Questions . . 119

    Suggesting Reading and Resources . . 121

Chapter 4: Cryptography. . . . 123

    Introduction. . . . 124

    Cryptographic Basics . . . 124

    History of Encryption . . . 127

    Steganography. . . 132

        Steganography Operation . . 133

        Digital Watermark . . . 134

    Algorithms . . . . 135

    Cipher Types and Methods . . . 137

    Symmetric Encryption . . . 137

        Data Encryption Standard. . 140

        Triple-DES . . . 144

        Advanced Encryption Standard. . 145

        International Data Encryption Algorithm. . 146

        Rivest Cipher Algorithms . . 146

    Asymmetric Encryption . . . 147

        Diffie-Hellman . . . 149

        RSA. . . . 150

        El Gamal . . . 151

        Elliptical Curve Cryptosystem . . 152

        Merkle-Hellman Knapsack . . 152

        Review of Symmetric and Asymmetric Cryptographic Systems . . . 153

    Hybrid Encryption . . . 153

    Integrity and Authentication. . . 154

        Hashing and Message Digests. . 155

        Digital Signatures . . . 158

        Cryptographic System Review . . 159

    Public Key Infrastructure . . . 160

        Certificate Authority . . . 160

        Registration Authority . . . 161

        Certificate Revocation List . . 161

        Digital Certificates . . . 161

        The Client’s Role in PKI . . . 163

    Email Protection Mechanisms . . . 164

        Pretty Good Privacy. . . 164

        Other Email Security Applications. . 165

    Securing TCP/IP with Cryptographic Solutions. . 165

        Application/Process Layer Controls . . 166

        Host to Host Layer Controls . . 167

        Internet Layer Controls. . . 168

        Network Access Layer Controls . . 170

        Link and End-to-End Encryption . . 170

    Cryptographic Attacks . . . 171

    Exam Prep Questions. . . 175

    Answers to Exam Prep Questions . . 178

    Need to Know More? . . . 180

Chapter 5: Security Architecture and Models . . . 181

    Introduction. . . . 182

    Computer System Architecture . . 182

        Central Processing Unit . . . 182

        Storage Media . . . 186

        I/O Bus Standards. . . 189

        Hardware Cryptographic Components . . 190

        Virtual Memory and Virtual Machines . . 190

        Computer Configurations . . 191

    Security Architecture . . . 192

        Protection Rings . . . 192

        Trusted Computer Base . . . 194

        Open and Closed Systems . . 197

        Security Modes of Operation . . 197

        Operating States . . . 199

        Recovery Procedures . . . 199

        Process Isolation . . . 200

    Security Models . . . 201

        State Machine Model . . . 202

        Information Flow Model . . . 203

        Noninterference Model . . . 203

        Confidentiality. . . 203

        Integrity . . . 204

        Other Models . . . 208

    Documents and Guidelines . . . 208

        The Rainbow Series . . . 209

        The Red Book: Trusted Network Interpretation . 211

        Information Technology Security Evaluation Criteria . 212

        Common Criteria . . . 212

    System Validation . . . 214

        Certification and Accreditation. . 215

        Governance and Enterprise Architecture . . 216

    Security Architecture Threats. . . 219

        Buffer Overflow . . . 219

        Back Doors . . . 220

        Asynchronous Attacks . . . 220

        Covert Channels . . . 221

        Incremental Attacks . . . 221

    Exam Prep Questions. . . 223

    Answers to Exam Prep Questions . . 226

    Need to Know More? . . . 228

Chapter 6: Telecommunications and Network Security . . 229

    Introduction. . . . 230

    Network Models and Standards . . 230

        OSI Model . . . 231

        Encapsulation/De-Encapsulation . . 237

    TCP/IP . . . . 238

        Network Access Layer . . . 238

        Internet Layer . . . 239

        Host-to-Host (Transport) Layer. . 243

        Application Layer . . . 245

    LANs and Their Components . . . 249

        LAN Communication Protocols . . 250

        Network Topologies . . . 251

        LAN Cabling. . . 253

        Network Types . . . 255

    Communication Standards . . . 256

    Network Equipment. . . 257

        Repeaters . . . 257

        Hubs . . . . 257

        Bridges . . . 257

        Switches . . . 258

        VLANs . . . 259

    Routers . . . 260

        Brouters . . . 261

        Gateways . . . 261

    Routing. . . . 262

    WANs and Their Components . . 264

        Packet Switching. . . 264

        Circuit Switching . . . 266

    Cloud Computing. . . 270

    Voice Communications and Wireless Communications . 271

        Voice over IP . . . 271

        Cell Phones . . . 272

        802.11 Wireless Networks and Standards . . 274

    Network Security . . . 281

        Firewalls . . . 282

        Demilitarized Zone. . . 283

        Firewall Design . . . 285

    Remote Access. . . 285

        Point-to-Point Protocol. . . 286

        Virtual Private Networks . . . 287

        Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service . 288

        Terminal Access Controller Access Control System . 288

        IPSec. . . . 288

    Message Privacy . . . 289

    Threats to Network Security . . . 290

        DoS Attacks . . . 290

        Distributed Denial of Service . . 291

        Disclosure Attacks. . . 291

        Destruction, Alteration, or Theft . . 292

    Exam Prep Questions. . . 295

    Answers to Exam Prep Questions . . 298

    Need to Know More? . . . 299

Chapter 7: Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery Planning. . 301

    Introduction. . . . 302

    Threats to Business Operations . . 302

    Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity Management . 303

        Project Management and Initiation . . 305

        Business Impact Analysis . . . 307

        Recovery Strategy . . . 313

        Plan Design and Development . . 327

        Implementation. . . 330

        Testing . . . 331

        Monitoring and Maintenance . . 333

    Disaster Life Cycle . . . 334

        Teams and Responsibilities . . 336

    Exam Prep Questions. . . 338

    Answers to Exam Prep Questions . . 341

    Need to Know More? . . . 343

Chapter 8: Legal, Regulations, Investigations, and Compliance . . 345

    Introduction. . . . 346

    United States Legal System and Laws. . 346

    International Legal Systems and Laws . . 347

    International Property Laws . . . 349

        Piracy and Issues with Copyrights . . 350

    Privacy Laws and Protection of Personal Information . 351

        Privacy Impact Assessment . . 353

    Computer Crime Laws . . . 354

    Regulatory Compliance and Process Control. . 354

    Ethics . . . . 355

        ISC2 Code of Ethics. . . 356

        Computer Ethics Institute . . 357

        Internet Architecture Board . . 357

        NIST 800-14. . . 358

    Computer Crime and Criminals. . 359

        Pornography . . . 361

    Well-Known Computer Crimes . . 362

    How Computer Crime Has Changed . . 363

    Attack Vectors . . . 364

        Keystroke Logging . . . 365

        Wiretapping. . . 365

        Spoofing Attacks . . . 366

        Manipulation Attacks . . . 367

        Social Engineering . . . 367

        Dumpster Diving . . . 368

    Investigating Computer Crime. . . 368

        Computer Crime Jurisdiction . . 369

        Incident Response. . . 369

    Forensics . . . . 374

        Standardization of Forensic Procedures . . 375

        Computer Forensics . . . 376

    Investigations. . . 381

        Search, Seizure, and Surveillance . . 381

        Interviews and Interrogations . . 381

        Honeypots and Honeynets . . 381

        Evidence Types . . . 383

    Trial . . . . 384

        The Evidence Life Cycle . . . 384

    Exam Prep Questions. . . 385

    Answers to Exam Prep Questions . . 388

    Need to Know More? . . . 390

Chapter 9: Software Development Security . . . 391

    Introduction. . . . 392

    Software Development. . . 392

        Avoiding System Failure . . . 393

        The System Development Life Cycle . . 394

    System Development Methods. . . 402

        The Waterfall Model . . . 402

        The Spiral Model . . . 402

        Joint Application Development . . 403

        Rapid Application Development. . 404

        Incremental Development . . 404

        Prototyping . . . 404

        Computer-Aided Software Engineering . . 405

        Agile Development Methods. . 405

        Capability Maturity Model . . 406

        Scheduling . . . 407

    Change Management . . . 408

    Programming Languages. . . 409

        Object-Oriented Programming . . 412

        CORBA . . . 413

    Database Management. . . 413

        Database Terms. . . 414

        Integrity . . . 416

        Transaction Processing. . . 416

        Data Warehousing . . . 416

        Data Mining . . . 417

        Knowledge Management . . . 418

        Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems. . 418

    Malicious Code . . . 419

        Viruses . . . 420

        Worms . . . 421

        Spyware . . . 422

        Back Doors and Trapdoors . . 423

        Change Detection. . . 423

        Mobile Code . . . 424

        Financial Attacks . . . 424

        Buffer Overflow . . . 424

        Input Validation and Injection Attacks . . 426

    Exam Prep Questions. . . 429

    Answers to Exam Prep Questions . . 432

    Need to Know More? . . . 434

Chapter 10: Information Security Governance and Risk Management . . 435

    Introduction. . . . 436

    Basic Security Principles . . . 436

    Security Management and Governance. . 438

    Asset Identification . . . 440

    Risk Assessment . . . 441

        Risk Management . . . 442

    Policies Development. . . 458

        Security Policy. . . 459

        Standards . . . 461

        Baselines . . . 461

        Guidelines . . . 461

        Procedures . . . 462

        Data Classification . . . 462

    Implementation. . . 465

        Roles and Responsibility . . . 465

        Security Controls . . . 467

    Training and Education . . . 469

        Security Awareness . . . 470

        Social Engineering . . . 471

    Auditing Your Security Infrastructure . . 472

    The Risk of Poor Security Management. . 474

    Exam Prep Questions. . . 475

    Answers to Exam Prep Questions . . 478

    Need to Know More? . . . 480

Chapter 11: Security Operations . . . 481

    Introduction. . . . 482

    Security Operations . . . 482

        Employee Recruitment . . . 483

        New-Hire Orientation . . . 484

        Separation of Duties. . . 484

        Job Rotation. . . 485

        Least Privilege. . . 485

        Mandatory Vacations . . . 486

        Termination . . . 486

    Accountability . . . 486

    Controls . . . . 488

        Security Controls . . . 489

        Operational Controls . . . 490

    Auditing and Monitoring. . . 498

        Auditing . . . 498

        Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) . 499

        Monitoring Controls . . . 499

        Clipping Levels . . . 501

        Intrusion Detection . . . 501

        Keystroke Monitoring . . . 502

        Antivirus . . . 503

        Facility Access Control . . . 504

    Telecommunication Controls . . . 504

        Fax. . . . 505

        PBX. . . . 506

        Email. . . . 507

    Backup, Fault Tolerance, and Recovery Controls . . 509

        Backups. . . 509

        Fault Tolerance . . . 511

        RAID . . . . 513

        Recovery Controls . . . 515

    Security Assessments . . . 516

        Policy Reviews. . . 516

        Vulnerability Scanning . . . 517

        Penetration Testing. . . 518

    Operational Security Threats and Vulnerabilities . . 521

        Common Attack Methodologies. . 522

        Attack Terms and Techniques . . 524

    Exam Prep Questions. . . 526

    Answers to Exam Prep Questions . . 529

    Need to Know More? . . . 531

Practice Exam I. . . . 533

    Practice Exam Questions. . . 533

Answers to Practice Exam I . . . 547

Practice Exam II . . . . 563

    Practice Exam Questions. . . 563

Answers to Practice Exam II . . . 577

TOC, 9780789749574, 11/2/2012

 

Preface

Introduction

Welcome to CISSP Exam Cram! This book covers the CISSP certification exam. Whether this is your first or your fifteenth Exam Cram, you’ll find information here and in Chapter 1 that will ensure your success as you pursue knowledge, experience, and certification. This introduction explains the ISC2 certification programs in general and talks about how the Exam Cram series can help you prepare for the CISSP exam.

This book is one of the Exam Cram series of books and will help by getting you on you way to becoming an ISC2 Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP).

This introduction discusses the basics of the CISSP exam. Included are sections covering preparation, how to take an exam, a description of this book’s contents, how this book is organized, and, finally, author contact information.

Each chapter in this book contains practice questions. There are also two full-length practice exams at the end of the book. Practice exams in this book should provide an accurate assessment of the level of expertise you need to obtain to pass the test. Answers and explanations are included for all test questions. It is best to obtain a level of understanding equivalent to a consistent pass rate of at least 95% or more on the practice questions and exams in this book before you attempt the real exam.

Let’s begin by looking at preparation for the exam.

How to Prepare for the Exam

Preparingfor the CISSP exam requires that you obtain and study materials designed to provide comprehensive information about security. The following list of materials will help you study and prepare:

  • The ISC2 website at http://www.ISC2.org
  • The study guide available at the ISC2 website
  • The CISSP open study guide website at http://www.cccure.org

Many people form study groups, attend seminars, and training classes to help them study for and master the material needed to pass the CISSP exam.

Practice Tests

You don’t need to know much about practice tests, other than that they are a worthwhile expense for three reasons:

  • They help you diagnose areas of weakness.
  • They are useful for getting used to the format of questions.
  • They help you to decide when you are ready to take the exam.

This book contains questions at the end of each chapter and includes two full-length practice tests. However, if you still want more, a related Exam Cram CISSP Practice Questions book has more than 500 additional questions. The questions are in paper form so that you can practice in an environment similar to the real exam; they are also available electronically as a practice test CD in the back of the book. Many other companies provide CISSP certification practice tests as well.

Taking a Certification Exam

When you have prepared for the exam, you must register with ISC2 to take the exam. The CISSP exam is given throughout the year at various locations. You can find the latest schedule at https://http://www.ISC2.org/cgi-bin/exam_schedule.cgi?displaycategory=1182. Many people decide to travel to the exam location; others wait until it is given at a location closer to them. ISC2 has implemented regional pricing: As an example, early registration is $499 in the United States, compared to standard registration of $599. Check the ISC2 website at https://www.ISC2.org/uploadedFiles/Downloads/exam_pricing.pdf to get specific details.

You can register for an exam done online, by mail, or by fax. The online form is available at http://www.ISC2.org/certification-register-now.aspx. After you register, you will receive a confirmation notice.

Arriving at the Exam Location

As with any examination, arrive at the testing center early. Be prepared! You will need to bring the confirmation letter and identification such as a driver’s license, green card, or passport. Any photo ID will suffice. Two forms of ID are usually required. The testing center staff requires proof that you are who you say you are and that someone else is not taking the test for you. Arrive early as if you are late you will be barred from entry and will not receive a refund for the cost of the exam.


Warning - You’ll be spending a lot of time in the exam room. The total test time is 6 hours, so eat a good breakfast and take a snack and bottle of water with you to the testing area. Policies differ—some locations might allow you to take the water and energy bar to your desk whereas others might make you place it at the back of the testing area.


In the Exam Room

You will not be allowed to take study materials or anything else into the examination room with you that could raise suspicion that you’re cheating. This includes practice test material, books, exam prep guides, or other test aids.

After the Exam

Examination results are not available after the exam. You must wait up to 4–6 weeks to get your results by email or snail mail. Most individuals receive these rather quickly within 4 weeks or so. If you pass the exam, you will simply receive a passing grade—your exact score will not be provided.

Retaking a Test

If you fail the exam you must wait at least 90 days to retake a failed examination. Candidates that do not pass will receive a complete breakdown on their score. Each of the ten domains will be shown as will the candidates score. As an example, you may have received a 95% score in the telecommunications domain and only 12% in cryptography. Use this feedback to better understand what areas you were weak in and where to spend your time and effort in your studies. Additionally, invest in some practice tests if you have not already done so. There is much to be said for getting used to a testing format.

Tracking Your CISSP Status

When you pass the exam, you still need to attest to the CISSP code of ethics and have an existing CISSP complete an endorsement form for you.

When you receive notice of your passing grade, a blank endorsement form will be sent with it. The endorsement form must be completed by someone who can attest to your professional experience and who is an active CISSP in good standing. If you don’t know anyone who is CISSP certified, ISC2 allows endorsements from other professionals who are certified, licensed, or commissioned, and an officer of the corporation where you are employed. You can review complete information on the endorsement form at the ISC2 website.

About This Book

The ideal reader for an Exam Cram book is someone seeking certification. However, it should be noted that an Exam Cram book is a very easily readable, rapid presentation of facts. Therefore, an Exam Cram book is also extremely useful as a quick reference manual.

Most people seeking certification use multiple sources of information. Check out the links at the end of each chapter to get more information about subjects you’re weak in. Practice tests can help indicate when you are ready. Various security books from retailers also describe the topics in this book in much greater detail. Don’t forget that many have described the CISSP exam as being a “mile wide.”

This book includes other helpful elements in addition to the actual logical, step-by-step learning progression of the chapters themselves. Exam Cram books use elements such as exam alerts, tips, notes, and practice questions to make information easier to read and absorb.


Note - Reading this book from start to finish is not necessary; this book is set up so that you can quickly jump back and forth to find sections you need to study.


Use the Cram Sheet to remember last-minute facts immediately before the exam. Use the practice questions to test your knowledge. You can always brush up on specific topics in detail by referring to the table of contents and the index. Even after you achieve certification, you can use this book as a rapid-access reference manual.

The Chapter Elements

Each Exam Cram book has chapters that follow a predefined structure. This structure makes Exam Cram books easy to read and provides a familiar format for all Exam Cram books. The following elements typically are used:

  • Opening hotlists
  • Chapter topics
  • Exam Alerts
  • Notes
  • Tips
  • Sidebars
  • Cautions
  • Exam preparation practice questions and answers
  • A “Need to Know More?” section at the end of each chapter

Note - Bulleted lists, numbered lists, tables, and graphics are also used where appropriate. A picture can paint a thousand words sometimes, and tables can help to associate different elements with each other visually.


Now let’s look at each of the elements in detail.

  • Opening hotlists—The start of every chapter contains a list of terms you should understand. A second hotlist identifies all the techniques and skills covered in the chapter.
  • Chapter topics—Each chapter contains details of all subject matter listed in the table of contents for that particular chapter. The objective of an Exam Cram book is to cover all the important facts without giving too much detail; it is an exam cram. When examples are required, they are included.
  • Exam Alerts—Exam Alerts address exam-specific, exam-related information. An Exam Alert addresses content that is particularly important, tricky, or likely to appear on the exam. An Exam Alert looks like this:

  • Warning - Make sure you remember the different ways in which DES can be implemented and that ECB is considered the weakest form of DES.


  • Notes—Notes typically contain useful information that is not directly related to the current topic under consideration. To avoid breaking up the flow of the text, they are set off from the regular text.

  • Note - This is a note. You have already seen several notes.


  • Tips—Tips often provide shortcuts or better ways to do things.

  • Tip - A clipping level is the point at which you set a control to distinguish between activity that should be investigated and activity that should not be investigated.


  • Sidebars—Sidebars are longer and run beside the text. They often describe real-world examples or situations.

  • How Caller ID Can Be Hacked - Sure, we all trust Caller ID, but some Voice over IP (VoIP) providers allow users to inject their own Call Party Number (CPN) into the call. Because VoIP is currently outside FCC regulation, these hacks are now possible.


  • Cautions—Cautions apply directly to the use of the technology being discussed in the Exam Cram. For example, a Caution might point out that the CER is one of the most important items to examine when examining biometric devices.

  • Caution - The Crossover Error Rate (CER) is the point at which Type 1 errors and Type 2 errors intersect. The lower the CER is, the more accurate the device is.


  • Exam preparation practice questions—At the end of every chapter is a list of at least 10 exam practice questions similar to those in the actual exam. Each chapter contains a list of questions relevant to that chapter, including answers and explanations. Test your skills as you read.
  • “Need to Know More?” section—This section at the end of each chapter describes other relevant sources of information. With respect to this chapter, the best place to look for CISSP certification information is at the ISC2 website, http://www.ISC2.org.

Other Book Elements

Most of this Exam Cram book on CISSP follows the consistent chapter structure already described. However, there are various, important elements that are not part of the standard chapter format. These elements apply to the entire book as a whole.

  • Practice exams—In addition to exam-preparation questions at the end of each chapter, two full practice exams are included at the end of the book.
  • Answers and explanations for practice exams—These follow each practice exam, providing answers and explanations to the questions in the exams.
  • Glossary—The glossary contains a listing of important terms used in this book with explanations.
  • Cram Sheet—The Cram Sheet is a quick-reference, tear-out cardboard sheet of important facts useful for last-minute preparation. Cram sheets often include a simple summary of facts that are most difficult to remember.
  • CD—The CD contains the MeasureUp exam-simulation software, which provides multiple test modes that you can use for exam preparation. MeasureUp practice tests are designed to appropriately balance the questions over each technical area (domain) covered by the exam. All concepts from the actual exam are covered thoroughly to ensure you’re prepared for the exam.

Chapter Contents

The following list provides an overview of the chapters.

  • Chapter 1, “The CISSP Certification Exam”—This chapter introduces exam strategies and considerations.
  • Chapter 2, “Physical Security”—This chapter details physical security and the threats and countermeasures available for protecting an organization’s resources. Physical security plays a key role in securing an organization’s assets. Without effective physical security, there can be no effective security structure in place.
  • Chapter 3, “Access Control Systems and Methodology”—This chapter covers the basics of access control. This chapter addresses the three A’s: authentication, authorization, and accountability. Items such as identification, single sign-on, centralized authentication, and the role of technical, administrative, and physical controls are discussed.
  • Chapter 4, “Cryptography”—This chapter discusses the methods, means, and systems used to encrypt and protect data. Symmetric, asymmetric, and hashing algorithms are introduced, along with PKI and cryptographic methods of attack.
  • Chapter 5, “Security Architecture and Models”—This chapter discusses key concepts such as computer hardware, operating system design, security models, and documentation used to verify, certify, and accredited systems and networks.
  • Chapter 6, “Telecommunications and Network Security”—This chapter discusses telecommunication technology. Items such as the OSI model, TCP/IP, network equipment, LAN, MAN, and WAN protocols, and wireless technologies are just a few of the items discussed. This is the most expansive domain and considered one of the most critical for the CISSP candidate to master.
  • Chapter 7, “Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery Planning”—This chapter covers all the aspects of the BCP and DRP process. Although some may discount the importance the importance of this domain, events such as 9/11 demonstrate the critically of this domain. This chapter addresses key elements of disaster recovery and business continuity. One important item is that no demonstrated recovery exists until the plan has been tested. Exam candidates must understand what is needed to prevent, minimize, and recover from disasters.
  • Chapter 8, “Legal Regulations, Compliance, and Investigations”—This chapter covers all legal issues from a global perspective. Readers must understand issues such as privacy and the transnational flow of information. Ethics are also discussed because CISSP candidates must understand and abide by the ISC2 code of ethics. Incident response and computer forensics are introduced in this chapter because readers must understand how to deal with the potential of computer crime.
  • Chapter 9, “Applications and Systems-Development Security”—This chapter discusses databases, the system development life cycle and the importance of building security into applications and systems as early as possible during the development process. Project management is reviewed, as are malicious code, knowledge-based systems, and application issues.
  • Chapter 10, “Information Security and Risk Management Practices”—This chapter discusses asset management and the protection of critical resources. Quantitative and qualitative risk assessment are two major topics of this chapter. Readers must understand how these concepts are used to assess and measure risk while reducing threats to the organization. Key concepts include the development of policies, procedures, guidelines, and assorted controls.
  • Chapter 11, “Operations Security”—This chapter covers operation controls—that is, the types of controls that the organization can implement. Topics such as background checks, duel controls, mandatory vacations, rotation of duties, and auditing are introduced. This chapter also reviews security assessments, ethical hacking, and vulnerability scanning.
  • Chapter 12, Practice Exam I—This is a full-length practice exam.
  • Chapter 13, Answers to Practice Exam I—This element contains the answers and explanations for the first practice exam.
  • Chapter 14, Practice Exam II—This is a second full-length practice exam.
  • Chapter 15, Answers to Practice Exam II—This element contains the answers and explanations for the second practice exam.

Contacting the Author

Hopefully, this book provides you with the tools you need to pass the CISSP exam. Feedback is appreciated. You can contact the author at mikeg@thesolutionfirm.com.

Thank you for selecting my book; I have worked to apply the same concepts in this book that I have used in the hundreds of training classes I have taught. Spend your study time wisely and you too can become a CISSP. Good luck on the exam!

Self-Assessment

This Self-Assessment section enables you to evaluate your readiness to take the CISSP certification exam. It should also help you understand what’s required to obtain the CISSP certification. Are you ready?

CISSPs in the Real World

Security continues to be on everyone’s mind. The CISSP certification continues to be one of the most sought-after security certifications. Increasing numbers of people are studying for and obtaining their CISSP certifications. Congratulations on making the decision to follow in their footsteps. If you are willing to tackle the process seriously and do what it takes to obtain the necessary experience and knowledge, you can pass the exam on the first try.


Tip - You can also assess your CISSP skill set by using the MeasureUp Certification Mode.


The Ideal CISSP Candidate

The CISSP is designed for individuals that are leading, planning, organizing, or controlling the security initiative of an organization. The ideal CISSP candidate is likely to have a 4-year college education and have at least 5–7 years experience in one or more of the 10 CISSP domains. The most applicable degree is in computer science or perhaps a related field. A degree is not a prerequisite for taking the test. However, exam candidates must have a minimum of 5 years of direct full-time security work experience in two or more of the 10 domains. One year of experience can be substituted for a four-year college degree or an approved certification such as Security +. The complete list of approved certifications can be found at https://www.ISC2.org/cgi-bin/content.cgi?page=1016. Don’t be lull-ed into thinking that this is an easy test. Some words of caution might be in order:

  • The CISSP exam requires the candidate to absorb a substantial amount of material. The test is 6 hours long and consists of 225 graded questions. Unlike Microsoft exams and most other IT vendor exams, it is not a computer-generated test.
  • The pass mark is set high, at 700 points. The individual questions are weighted, which means that harder questions are worth more than easier ones.
  • Most of the individuals attempting the exam are familiar with one to three of the domains. This means that studying for the exam can be overwhelming because there is so much material to cover. This book can help by guiding you to the areas in which you are weak or strong.
  • To be eligible for the CISSP exam, students are required to have 4 years of experience, or 3 years of experience and a college degree.

Put Yourself to the Test

In this section, you answer some simple questions. The objective is for you to understand exactly how much work and effort you must invest to pass the CISSP certification exam. The simple answer to this question is this: The experience and education you have will dictate how difficult it will be for you to pass. Be honest in your answers or you will end up wasting $500 or more on an exam you were not ready to take. From the beginning, two things should be clear:

  • Any educational background in computer science will be helpful, as will other IT certifications you have achieved.
  • Hands-on actual experience is not only essential, but also required to obtain this certification.

Your Educational Background

  • Do you have a computer science degree?
  • You’ll have a good basic knowledge needed for 3 or more of the 10 domains, assuming that you finished your degree and your schooling and have some fairly sophisticated computer skills. Subject areas such as application development, networking, and database design are a great help.

  • Did you attend some type of technical school or computer cram course?
  • This question applies to low-level or short-term computer courses. Many of these courses are extremely basic or focused in one particular area. Although the CISSP exam is not platform specific, training classes that focused on networking, security, hacking, or database design will help you pass the exam.

  • Have you developed any security policies, performed security audits, performed penetration tests, or developed response plans?
  • If yes, you will probably be able to handle about half of the CISSP exam domains.

  • Do you have a photographic memory?
  • If yes, you might have a slim chance of passing simply by reading this book, taking some practice exams, and using the Internet to brush up on the subjects you are weak in. However, the goal here is to gain a real understanding of the material. As a CISSP, you might be asked to lead, plan, organize, or control your organization’s security operations; if that happens, you’ll need a real understanding of how the various technologies and techniques work. Don’t cheat yourself or gamble with your career.

Again, the education and requirements given here are by no means absolute. Still, an education can give you a very good grounding in any endeavor—the higher the level of education, the better.

Testing Your Exam Readiness

Whether you attend a training class, form a study group, or study on your own, preparing for the CISSP exam is essential. The exam will cost you about $500, depending on where you are located, so you’ll want to do everything you can to make sure you pass on the first try. Reading, studying, and taking practice exams are the best ways to increase your readiness. Practice exams help in a number of ways:

  • Practice exams highlight weak spots for further study.
  • Practice exams give you a general perspective on the question format. Practicing the questions the way they are asked can help enormously on the actual testing day.
  • Two full-length practice exams are provided with this book. Que also publishes a second book, CISSP Practice Questions Exam, with more than 500 practice CISSP test questions; it is an excellent supplement to this book.

After the Exam

After you have passed the exam, you will need to gain continuing education credits each year to maintain your certification. Your certification will come up for renewal every 3 years, so you’ll need to obtain 120 continuing education credits (CPE) or retake the exam. Retaking the exam is probably not a likely choice. These are some ways to gain CPEs to keep your certification current:

  • Write a book.
  • Read a book. (Only one per year can be used for credit.) This will give you a couple of credits, but not enough to keep your certification current.
  • Do volunteer work that is approved by ISC2. When you are certified, you can log on to the ISC2 website for more information. A variety of volunteer work is available, including proctoring the CISSP exam.
  • Attend a training class. Just about any type of technology training class is accepted as long as it is tied to one of the domains.
  • Teach a training class.
  • Attend a college-level security class.

As you can see, the goal here is to help you stay current. As technology changes, we all must continue to learn to keep up the pace.

Now that we have covered some of the ways in which to assess you exam readiness, let’s move on to Chapter 1, “The CISSP Certification Exam,” where you will learn more about how the exam is structured and some effective test-taking strategies.

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