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Civilization in the West / Edition 7

Civilization in the West / Edition 7

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“This text is clear, well-organized, and easy for my students to follow. I have never had more satisfied students over a thirty-five year career.”

–Don Mohr, University of Alaska — Anchorage

“Students typically associate a history classes with being dull and dreary with an accompanying dry text. This book entices students to read the chapters not only because they are assigned but because the students are eager to read them.”

–Janilyn M. Kocher, Richland Community College

“I have seen texts that are dry, monotonous, and chocked with detail. I have seen others that present the material so lightly that it may blow away. This text is a combination of detailed information in an engaging and interesting presentation.”

–John S. Kemp, Truckee Meadows Community College

In Civilization in the West, the dramatic, changing contours of Western Civilization are explored through a compelling narrative and a rich image-based approach. In the new Seventh Edition, updated throughout, the authors blend social and political history with an exceptional map and image program to engage students and make the material more accessible.

New to this edition

  • “Image Discovery” features appear in every chapter and help students approach images as important historical texts.
  • New “West in the Wider World” essays: Chapter 18, “The Siege of Vienna;” Chapter 25, “Babylon Discovered;” and Chapter 29, “Mahatma Gandhi’s Legacy.”
  • New primary source documents: Chapter 14 now includes “The Heart and Stomach of aKing,” in which Queen Elizabeth rallies her subjects to oppose the invasion of English by the Spanish Armada; Chapter 19 now contains excerpts from Voltaire’s great comic novel, Candide; the Treaty of Versailles is excerpted in Chapter 26; and Chapter 30 now includes both Vaclav Havel’s address to Czechoslovakia from January 1, 1990 and a press release from London Mayor Ken Livingstone regarding his commitment, and that of 21 other mayors from major cities around the world, to reducing greenhouse gases.
  • An expanded Glossary contains over 60 new key terms.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780136007067
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 01/01/2008
Edition description: Student
Product dimensions: 8.70(w) x 11.00(h) x 1.40(d)

Table of Contents

Detailed Contents



Chronologies, Genealogies, and Figures


Supplements 0

About the Authors


The Idea of Western Civilization 1

Chapter 1

The First Civilizations 3

The Visual Record:

Ötzi’s Last Meal: Tradition and Innovation in Prehistoric Europe

Before Civilization

The Dominance of Culture

Social Organization, Agriculture, and Religion

Mesopotamia: Between the Two Rivers

Map Discovery: The Ancient World

The Ramparts of Uruk

Tools: Technology and Writing

Gods and Mortals in Mesopotamia

Sargon and Mesopotamian Expansion

Hammurabi and the Old Babylonian Empire

The Gift of the Nile

Tending the Cattle of God

Democratization of the Afterlife

The Egyptian Empire

Map Discovery: The Egyptian Empire

Religious and Royal Consolidation Under Akhenaten

Between Two Worlds

The Hebrew Alternative

A King Like All the Nations


Nineveh and Babylon

The Assyrian Empire

The New Babylonian Empire

Persian Expansion

A Closer Look

Discovering the Pharaohs

The West and the Under World

The First European Immigrants


The Code of Hammurabi

A Homesick Egyptian

The Kingdom of Israel

Chapter 2

Early Greece, 25—5 b.c.e.

The Visual Record:

Hecuba and Achilles: The Birth of Greek Civilization

Greece in the Bronze Age to 8 b.c.e.

Islands of Peace

Map Discovery: Greece in the Bronze Age

Mainland of War

The Dark Age

Archaic Greece, 8—5 b.c.e.

Ethnos and Polis 45

Map Discovery: Greek Cities and Colonies of the Archaic Age

Technology of Writing and Warfare

Colonists and Tyrants

Gender and Power

Gods and Mortals

Myth and Reason

Investigation and Speculation

Art and the Individual

A Tale of Three Cities

Wealthy Corinth

Martial Sparta

Democratic Athens

The Coming of Persia and the End of the Archaic Age

Map Discovery: The Persian Empire, ca. 5 b.c.e.

A Closer Look

The Agony of Athletics


The Race of Iron

Hector and Andromache

Two Faces of Tyranny

Image Discovery

A Revolution in War-fare

Chapter 3

Classical and Hellenistic Greece, 5—1 b.c.e.

The Visual Record:

Pericles Builds His Parthenon: Politics, Art, and Empire 66

Note: Each chapter ends with Questions for Review, Key Terms, Discovering Western Civilization Online, and Suggestions for Further Reading.

War and Politics in the Fifth Century b.c.e.

The Persian Wars

Thermopylae and Salamis

The Athenian Empire

Private and Public Life in Athens

Pericles and Athens

The Peloponnesian War

Map Discovery: The Delian League and the Peloponnesian War

Athenian Culture in the Hellenic Age

The Examined Life

Understanding the Past

Athenian Drama

Art and the Human Image

From City-States to Macedonian Empire, 404—323 b.c.e. 82

Politics After the Peloponnesian War

Philosophy and the Polis

The Rise of Macedon

Map Discovery: The Empire of Alexander the Great 87

The Empire of Alexander the Great 87

The Hellenistic World 89

Map Discovery: The Hellenistic Kingdoms 89

Urban Life and Culture 92

Women in Public Life 92

Alexandria 93

Hellenistic Literature 93

Architecture and Art 94

Hellenistic Philosophy 95

Mathematics and Science 98

Cultural Resistance 98

A Closer Look

Technology and Innovation

The West and the Wider World

Representing the Buddha: From Apollo to Christian Saint


The Two Faces of Athenian Democracy

The Unexamined Life Is Not Worth $$$Leading

Greeks and Barbarians

Alexander Calls a Halt

Image Discovery

Chapter 4

Early Rome and the Roman Republic, 8—146 b.c.e.

The Visual Record:

Eternal Rome: From Village to Empire

The Western Mediterranean to 509 b.c.e.

Merchants of Baal

The Western Greeks

Map Discovery: Greek and Phoenician Colonies and Trade

Italy’s First Civilization

From City to Empire, 509—146 b.c.e. 109

Latin Rome

Etruscan Rome

Rome and Italy

Rome and the Mediterranean

Map Discovery: The Punic Wars

Republican Civilization

Farmers and Soldiers

The Roman Family

Social Effects of Expansion

Roman Religion

Republican Letters

The Crisis of Roman Virtue

A Closer Look

Hannibal’s Elephants


The Twelve Tables

Polybius Compares Rome and Carthage

Cato’s Slaves

Image Discovery

Casting a Vote

Chapter 5

Imperial Rome, 146 b.c.e.—192 c.e.

The Visual Record:

The Altar of Augustan Peace: The Making of the Roman Empire

The Price of Empire, 146—121 b.c.e.

Winners and Losers

Optimates and Populares

The End of the Republic

The Crisis of Government

Map Discovery: The Career of Julius Caesar

A Life Worth Leading

The Augustan Age and the Pax Romana 141

The Empire Renewed 141

Augustus’s Successors 146

Map Discovery: The Roman Empire, 14 and 117 c.e. 147

Religions from the East

Jewish Resistance 149

The Origins of Christianity

Geographical Tour:

A Tour of the Empire

The Western Provinces

The Eastern Provinces

The Culture of Antonine Rome

A Closer Look

A Day in the Pax Romana–Herculaneum 144

Image Discovery

Augustus’s Statue


The Reforms of Tiberius Gracchus

Cicero on Justice and Reason

Peter Announces the Good News

Chapter 6

The Transformation of the Classical World

The Visual Record:

A Bride’s Trousseau: The Synthesis of Christianity and the Classical Tradition

The Crisis of the Third Century

Enrich the Army and Scorn the Rest

An Empire on the Defensive

The Barbarian Menace

Roman Influence in the Barbarian World

The Empire Restored

Diocletian, the God-Emperor

Map Discovery: The Empire Under Diocletian

Constantine, the Emperor of God

The Triumph of Christianity

Imperial Christianity

Map Discovery: The Spread of Christianity

Divinity, Humanity, and Salvation

The Call of the Desert

Monastic Communities

Solitaries and Hermits

A Parting of the Ways

The Barbarization of the West

The New Barbarian Kingdoms

Map Discovery: Barbarian Migrations and Invasions

The Hellenization of the East

A Closer Look

The Stainless Star of Wisdom’s Discipline


Tacitus on the Germans

Religious Toleration and Persecution

Love in the Two Cities

Image Discovery Beholder:

In the Eye of the Jesus or Sun God?

Chapter 7

The Classical Legacy in the East: Byzantium and Islam

The Visual Record:

From Temple to Mosque: The Continuity of Civilization in the Eastern Mediterranean

The Byzantines

Justinian and the Creation of the Byzantine State

Emperors and Individuals

Map Discovery: Byzantine Empire Under Justinian

Families and Villages

A Foretaste of Heaven


The Rise of Islam

Arabia Before the Prophet

Muhammad, Prophet of God

The Triumph of Islam

The Spread of Islam

Map Discovery: The Spread of Islam

Authority and Government in Islam

Umayyad and ‘Abbasid Caliphates

Islamic Civilization

The Byzantine Apogee and Decline, 1—1453

The Disintegration of the Empire

The Conquests of Constantinople and Baghdad

The West and the Wider World

Industrial Espionage in the Sixth Century


The Qur’an

An Arab’s View of Western Medicine

A Turkish Guest in Constantinople

An Arab in Crusader Jerusalem

Image Discovery

Haram al-Sharif, or The Dome of the Rock: Theology in Stone

Chapter 8

The West in the Early Middle Ages, 5—9

The Visual Record:

The Chapel at the Waters: The Western Empire Reborn

The Making of the Barbarian Kingdoms, 5—750

Italy: From Ostrogoths to Lombards

Map Discovery: The Barbarian Kingdoms, ca. 526

Visigothic Spain: Intolerance and Destruction

The Anglo-Saxons: From Pagan Conquerors to Christian Missionaries

The Franks: An Enduring Legacy

Living in the New Europe

Creating the European Peasantry

Rural Households

Creating the European Aristocracy

Aristocratic Lifestyle

Governing Europe

The Carolingian Achievement

Map Discovery: Charlemagne’s Empire, 814

Charlemagne and the Renewal of the West

The Carolingian Renaissance

Carolingian Government

Carolingian Art

Geographical Tour:

Europe in the Ninth Century



The Slavic World

Muslim Spain

After the Carolingians: From Empire to Lordships

Disintegration of the Empire

Map Discovery: The Division of Charlemagne’s Empire

Emergence of France and Germany


A Closer Look

The Jews in the Early Middle Ages


Two Missionaries

From Slave to Queen

Feuding in the Frankish Kingdom

Charlemagne and the Arts

Image Discovery

Equestrian Emperors

Chapter 9

The High Middle Ages

The Visual Record:

Harold, King of the English

The Countryside

The Peasantry: Serfs and Freemen

The Aristocracy: Warriors and Heiresses

The Church: Saints and Monks

Crusaders: Soldiers of God

Map Discovery: The Crusades

Medieval Towns

Italian Cities

Map Discovery: Medieval Trade Networks

Northern Towns

The Fairs of Champagne

Urban Intellectuals

The Invention of the State

The Universal States: Empire and Papacy

The Nation-States: France and England

A Closer Look

Cathedrals of Light


Visions Like a Flame

Pope Urban II Summons a Crusade

Saint Francis of Assisi on Humility and Poverty

The Great Charter

Image Discovery

Chapter 10

The Later Middle Ages, 13—15

The Visual Record:

Webs of Stone and Blood: European Civilization at the End of the Middle Ages

Politics as a Family Affair

The Struggle for Central Europe

Map Discovery: Central and Eastern Europe, ca. 1378

A Hundred Years of War

Life and Death in the Later Middle Ages

Dancing with Death

Map Discovery: Spread of the Black Death and Peasant Revolts

The Plague of Insurrection

Living and Dying in Medieval Towns

The Spirit of the Later Middle Ages

The Crisis of the Papacy

Map Discovery: The Great Schism

Discerning the Spirit of God

Heresy and Revolt

Religious Persecution in Spain

William of Ockham and the Spirit of Truth

Vernacular Literature and the Individual


The Black Death in Florence

A Woman Before the Inquisition


The West and the Wider World World Trade Centers

Image Discovery

Chapter 11

The Italian Renaissance

The Visual Record:

A Dining Al Fresco

Renaissance Society

The Urban Environment

Map Discovery: Largest Cities in Western Europe, ca. 15

Production and Consumption

The Experience of Life

The Quality of Life

Renaissance Art

An Architect, a Sculptor, and a Painter

Renaissance Style


Renaissance Ideals

Humanists and the Liberal Arts

Renaissance Science

Machiavelli and Politics

The Politics of the Italian City-States

Map Discovery: Italy, 1494

The Five Powers

Venice: A Seaborne Empire

Florence: Spinning Cloth into Gold

The End of Italian Hegemony, 1450—1527

A Closer Look

The Fall of Constantinople


On the Family

The Renaissance Man

The Lion and the Fox

The Siege of Constantinople

Chapter 12

The European Empires

The Visual Record:

Astride the World: The Age of Monarchies

European Encounters

Africa and a Passage to India

Map Discovery: Portuguese Explorations

Mundus Novus

The Spanish Conquests

The Legacy of the Encounters

Map Discovery: Claims of Spain and Portugal to Overseas Empires

Image Discovery

Small box

Geographical Tour:

Europe in 15: The Age of the New Monarchies

Boundaries of Eastern Europe

Central Europe

Western Europe

The Formation of States

Eastern Configurations

The Western Powers

Map Discovery: The Unification of France

The Dynastic Struggles

Power and Glory

The Italian Wars


A Momentous Discovery

The Halls of Montezuma

Last Words

The Kingdom of France

The West and the Wider World

The Columbian Exchange

Chapter 13

The Reform of Religion

The Visual Record:

Sola Scriptura: The Bible and the Reformation

The Intellectual Reformation

The Print Revolution

Map Discovery: The Spread of Printing

Christian Humanism

The Humanist Movement

The Wit of Erasmus

The Lutheran Reformation

The Spark of Reform

Martin Luther’s Faith


The Spread of Lutheranism

Map Discovery: The Spread of Lutheranism

The Protestant Reformation

Geneva and Calvin

The English Reformation

The Reformation of the Radicals

The Catholic Reformation

The Spiritual Revival

Image Discovery

Fishing for Souls

Loyola’s Pilgrimage

The Counter-Reformation

Map Discovery: The Religious Divisions of Europe

The Empire Strikes Back

A Closer Look



A Dutch Wit

Luther on Marriage

The Eternal Decree

Heavenly Vision

Chapter 14

Europe at War, 1555—1648

The Visual Record:

The Massacre of the Innocents: War and European Society

The Crises of the Western States

The French Wars of Religion

Map Discovery: Religious Divisions in France During the Wars of Religion

One King, Two Faiths

The World of Philip II

The Burgundian Inheritance

Map Discovery: Habsburg Lands at the Abdication of Charles V

The Revolt of the Netherlands

The Struggles in Eastern Europe

Kings and Diets in Poland

Image Discovery


Muscovy’s Time of Troubles

The Rise of Sweden

The Thirty Years’ War, 1618—1648

Bohemia Revolts

The War Widens

Map Discovery: Population Loss in Germany During the Thirty Years’ War

The Long Quest for Peace

A Closer Look

The Monstrous Regiment of Women


The Heart and Stomach of a King


War Is Hell

Fire and Sword

Chapter 15

The Experiences of Life in Early Modern Europe, 15—1650

The Visual Record:

Haymaking: Agriculture in a European Community

Economic Life

Rural Life

Image Discovery


Town Life

Map Discovery: Grain Supply and Trade in Sixteenth-Century Europe

Economic Change

Map Discovery: Population Density in Europe, ca. 16

Social Life

Social Constructs

Social Structure

Social Change

Peasant Revolts

Private and Community Life

The Family


Popular Beliefs and the Persecution of Witches

A Closer Look

Sex and the Married Man


Living by One’s Wits

The Peasants’ Revolt

The Devil’s Due

Chapter 16

The Royal State in the Seventeenth Century

The Visual Record:

Fit for a King: The Grandeur of the European Monarchy

The Rise of the Royal State

Divine Kings

The Court and the Courtiers

The Taxing Demands of War

The Crises of the Royal State

The Need to Resist

The Right to Resist

The English Civil War

Image Discovery


Map Discovery: English Civil War

The English Revolutions

The Zenith of the Royal State

The Nature of Absolute Monarchy

Absolutism in the East

Map Discovery: Expansion of Russia Under Peter the Great

The Origins of French Absolutism

Louis le Grand


The Divinity That Doth Hedge a King

A Short, Sharp Shock

The Nature of Man

A Close Shave

The West and the Wider World

The Siege of Vienna

Chapter 17

Science and Commerce in Early Modern Europe

The Visual Record:

Rembrandt’s Lessons: Anatomy and the New Science

The New Science

Heavenly Revolutions

The Natural World

Science Enthroned

Empires of Goods

The Marketplace of the World

Map Discovery: Dutch Trade Routes, ca. 1650

Consumption Choices

Image Discovery:

The Symbols of Trade

Dutch Masters

Mercantile Organization

The Wars of Commerce

The Mercantile Wars

The Wars of Louis XIV

Map Discovery: The Treaty of Utrecht

The Colonial Wars

Map Discovery: The Seven Years’ War

The West and the Wider World

The Nutmeg Wars



The Telescope

Descartes Experiments

Defining Commerce

Chapter 18

The Balance of Power in Eighteenth-Century Europe

The Visual Record:

A Dashing Officer: The Rise of Militarism

Geographical Tour:

A Grand Tour of Europe in 1714

Expansion of Western Europe

Realignment in Eastern Europe

The Rise of Russia

The Reforms of Peter the Great

Life in Rural Russia

The Enlightened Empress Catherine

The Two Germanies

The Rise of Prussia

Map Discovery:

The Expansion of Prussia

Austria Survives

The Politics of Power

Map Discovery:

The Partitions of Poland

The Greatness of Great Britain

The British Constitution

Parties and Ministers

America Revolts

Image Discovery:


The West and the Wider World

The British Raj in India


Captain Cook Encounters the Tahitians

A King’s-Eye View

Military Discipline

Unalienable Rights

Chapter 19

Culture and Society in Eighteenth-Century Europe

The Visual Record:

Happy Families: An Enlightenment Institution

Eighteenth-Century Culture

The Enlightenment

The Spirit of the Enlightenment

Image Discovery:


The Impact of the Enlightenment

Eighteenth-Century Society

The Nobility

The Bourgeoisie

The Masses

Map Discovery:

Cereal Crops in Europe

A Closer Look

Giving Birth in the Eighteenth Century


The All-Knowing


The Good of All

Love and Marriage

Chapter 20

The French Revolution and the Napoleonic Era, 1789—1815

The Visual Record:

The Tennis Court Oath: The Beginning of the French Revolution

The French Revolution and the Fall of the Monarchy

The Political and Fiscal Crisis of Eighteenth-Century France

Convening the Estates-General

The Outbreak of Revolutionary Action in 1789

Map Discovery:

Revolutionary France

Declaring Political Rights

The Trials of Constitutional Monarchy

Experimenting with Democracy, 1792—1799

The Revolution of the People

“Terror Is the Order of the Day”

The End of the Revolution

The Reign of Napoleon, 1799—1815

Bonaparte Seizes Power

Napoleon at War with the European Powers

The First Empire and Domestic Reforms

Map Discovery:

Napoleon’s Empire

Decline and Fall

A Closer Look

The Guillotine: Revolutionary Justice


“What Is the Third Estate?”

Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

Declaration of the Rights of Woman and Citizen

The Civil Code of the Code Napoléon (1804)

Chapter 21

Industrial Europe

The Visual Record:

Portrait of an Age: The Railroad

The Traditional Economy

Farming Families

Map Discovery:

Population Growth in Europe, 18—1850

Rural Manufacture

The Agricultural Revolution

Image Discovery:


The Industrial Revolution in Britain

Britain First

Map Discovery:

Great Britain: Canals and Natural Resources

Minerals and Metals

Cotton Is King

The Iron Horse

Entrepreneurs and Managers

The Wages of Progress

The Industrialization of the Continent

Map Discovery:

Industrial Revolution on the Continent

France: Industrialization Without Revolution

Germany: Industrialization and Union

The Lands That Time Forgot

A Closer Look

Industry and the Environment


The Wealth of Britain

The Sin of Wages

Exploiting the Young

The Slavery of Labor

Chapter 22

Political Upheavals and Social Transformations, 1815—1850

The Visual Record:

Potato Politics: The Plight of the Poor in European Societies

Geographical Tour:

Europe in 1815

The Congress of Vienna

The Alliance System

The New Ideologies

The New Politics of Preserving Order

Romanticism and Change

Reshaping State and Society

Protest and Revolution

Causes of Social Instability

The Revolutions of 1830

Map Discovery:

Unrest of the 1820s and 1830s: Centers of Revolutionary Action

Reform in Great Britain

Image Discovery:


Map Discovery:

Unrest of the 1820s and 1830s: Centers of Revolutionary Action

Workers Unite

Revolutions Across Europe, 1848—1850

Map Discovery:

The Revolutions of 1848

A Closer Look

The Birth of the Prison


Young Italy (1832)

The Communist Manifesto

Flora Tristan and the Rights of Working Women

Chapter 23

State Building and Social Change in Europe, 1850—1871

The Visual Record:

The Crystal Palace Exhibition of 1851: Symbols of a New Age

Building Nations: The Politics of Unification

The Crimean War

Map Discovery:

The Crimean War

Unifying Italy

Unifying Germany

Image Discovery:


Map Discovery:

The Unification of Germany

The United States: Civil War and Reunification

Nationalism and Force

Reforming European Society

The Second Empire in France, 1852—1870

Victorian Political Reforms

Reforming Russia

The Politics of Leadership

Changing Values and the Force of New Ideas

The Politics of Homemaking

Realism in the Arts

Charles Darwin and the New Science

Karl Marx and the Science of Society

A New Revolution?

A Closer Look

A Working Woman


The Russian Emancipation Proclamation, 1861

Mistress of the House

On the Origin of Species, 1859

Chapter 24

The Crisis of European Culture, 1871—1914

The Visual Record:

Speeding to the Future: Mass Society and the Rejection of Tradition

European Economy and the Politics of Mass Society

Regulating Boom and Bust

Challenging Liberal England

Political Struggles in Germany

Political Scandals and Mass Politics in France

Defeating Liberalism in Austria

Outsiders in Mass Politics

Feminists and Politics

The Jewish Question and Zionism

Map Discovery:

Jewish Migration

Workers and Minorities on the Margins

Shaping the New Consciousness

The Authority of Science

Establishing the Social Sciences

The “New Woman” and the New Consciousness

The New Consumption

A Closer Look

Sigmund Freud, Explorer of Dreams

The West and the Wider World

African Art and European Artists



Constance Lytton

“Angel” or Woman?

Chapter 25

Europe and the World, 1870—1914

The Visual Record:

The Politics of Mapmaking: The First Standardized Map of the World

The European Balance of Power, 1870—1914

Upsetting the European Balance of Power

The Instability of the Alliance System

The New Imperialism

The Technology of Empire

Motives for Empire

The Search for Territory and Markets

The Scramble for Africa: Diplomacy and Conflict

Gold, Empire Building, and the Boer War

Map Discovery:

Africa, 1914

Imperialism in Asia

The Imperialism of the United States

Results of a European-Dominated World

Map Discovery:

World Colonial Holdings

A World Economy

Race and Culture

Women and Imperialism

Ecology and Imperialism


Leopold II of Belgium, Speech to an International Conference of Geographers, 12 September 1876

Joseph Chamberlain’s Speech to the Birmingham Relief Association

Karl Pearson and the Defense of Eugenics

The West and the Wider World?

Babylon Discovered

Chapter 26

War and Revolution, 1914—1920

The Visual Record:

Selling the Great War

The War Europe Expected

Separating Friends from Foes

Military Timetables

Image Discovery:

Chain of Friendship

Map Discovery:

The Schlieffen Plan and France’s Plan XVII

Assassination at Sarajevo

A New Kind of Warfare

Technology and the Trenches

The German Offensive

Map Discovery:

World War I

War on the Eastern Front

War on the Western Front

War on the Periphery

Adjusting to the Unexpected: Total War

Mobilizing the Home Front

Silencing Dissent

The Russian Revolution and Allied Victory

Revolution in Russia

The United States Enters the Great War

Settling the Peace

Wilson’s Fourteen Points

Treaties and Territories

A Closer Look

The Women Who Started the Russian Revolution


All Quiet on the Western Front

“Dulce et Decorum Est”

War at Home

The Treaty of Versailles

Chapter 27

The European Search for Stability, 1920—1939

The Visual Record:

The Hard Lessons of Inflation

Geographical Tour:

Europe After 1918

New Nation-States, New Problems

German Recovery

France’s Search for Security

The United States in Europe

Crisis and Collapse in a World Economy

International Loans and Trade Barriers

The Great Depression

The Soviet Union’s Separate Path

The Soviet Regime at the End of the Civil War

The New Economic Policy, 1921—1928

Stalin’s Rise to Power

The First Five-Year Plan

The Comintern, Economic Development, and the Purges

Women and the Family in the New Soviet State

The Rise of Fascist Dictatorship in Italy

Mussolini’s Italy

Mussolini’s Plans for Empire

Hitler and the Third Reich

Hitler’s Rise to Power

Nazi Goals

Propaganda, Racism, and Culture

Democracies in Crisis

The Failure of the Left in France

Map Discovery:

Europe: Types of Government

Muddling Through in Great Britain

The Spanish Republic as Battleground

Image Discovery:


A Closer Look

The Screams from Guernica


The Depression for Women

The Results of the First Five-Year Plan

The Law on the Abolition of Legal Abortion, 1936

Adolf Hitler on “Racial Purity”

Chapter 28

Global Conflagration: World War II, 1939—1945

The Visual Record:

Precursor of War: The Annexation of Austria

Aggression and Conquest

Hitler’s Foreign Policy and Appeasement

Hitler’s War, 1939—1941

Map Discovery:

World War II in Europe

Collaboration and Resistance

Racism and Destruction

Enforcing Nazi Racial Policies

The Destruction of Europe’s Jews

Image Discovery:


Allied Victory

The Soviet Union’s Great Patriotic War

The United States Enters the War

Winning the War in Europe

Japanese War Aims and Assumptions

Winning the War in the Pacific

Map Discovery:

World War II in the Pacific, 1941—1945

The Fate of Allied Cooperation: 1945

A Closer Look

The Atomic Wasteland


Manifesto of the Jewish Resistance in Vilna, September 1943

President Franklin Roosevelt’s Request for a Declaration of War on Japan, 8 December 1941

Japan’s Declaration of War on the United States and Great Britain, 8 December 1941

“Glittering Fragments”

Chapter 29

The Cold War and Postwar Economic Recovery: 1945—1970

The Visual Record:

Europe in Ruins: Warsaw, 1946

The Origins of the Cold War

The World in Two Blocs

Map Discovery:

The Division of Germany

Map Discovery:

The Soviet Union and the Soviet Bloc

The Nuclear Club

Image Discovery:

Decolonization and the Cold War

Postwar Economic Recovery in Europe, Japan, and the Soviet Union

The Economic Challenge

The Economic Solution: The Marshall Plan

Image Discovery:

The Marshall Plan

Western European Economic Integration

Japan’s Recovery

The Soviet Path to Economic Recovery

The Welfare State and Social Transformation

Prosperity and Consumption in the West

Family Strategies

Youth Culture and Dissent

The West and the Wider World

Mahatma Gandhi’s Legacy


The Iron Curtain

The Marshall Plan

Report to the Twentieth Party Congress

The Second Sex

“Subterranean Homesick Blues”

Chapter 30

The End of the Cold War and New Global Challenges, 1970 to the Present

The Visual Record:

The Berlin Wall Comes Down

The End of the Cold War and the Emergence of a New Europe

The Brezhnev Doctrine and Détente

The New Direction in Soviet Politics

Reform in Eastern Europe

The Unification of Germany

Russia and the New Republics

Map Discovery:

Republics of the Soviet Union

Ethnic Conflict and Nationalism

The Chechen Challenge

War in the Balkans

The West in the Global Community

European Union and the American Superpower

A New Working Class: Foreign Workers

Women’s Changing Lives

Terrorism: The “New Kind of War”

The West and the Wider World:

Made in Japan


President Vaclav Havel’s Address to Czechoslovakia, 1 January 1990

Cities as Environmental Leaders, 25




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