Climate Change and Marine and Freshwater Toxins

Climate Change and Marine and Freshwater Toxins

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Overview

Production of toxins by marine and freshwater microalgae has been known for decades. However, toxic blooms have increased in frequency and distribution raising serious concerns regarding seafood and drinking water safety.
This book compiles current evidence on the influence of climate change on the spreading of toxin producing species in aquatic systems. The chemistry and biology of toxin production is revised and an outlook on control and prevention of the toxin's impact on human and animal health is given.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783110382617
Publisher: De Gruyter
Publication date: 09/25/2015
Sold by: Barnes & Noble
Format: NOOK Book
Pages: 508
File size: 9 MB
Age Range: 18 Years

About the Author

Prof. Luis M. Botana, Prof. Natalia Vilariño and Prof. M. Carmen Louzao, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Lugo, Spain.

Table of Contents

Preface v

List of contributing authors xv

1 Variability and trends of global sea ice cover and sea level: effects on physicochemical parameters Josefino C. Comiso 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Variability and trends of global sea ice 2

1.2.1 Arctic Region 5

1.2.2 Antarctic Region 8

1.3 Variability and trends in sea level 12

1.3.1 Contributions from warming oceans 13

1.3.2 Contributions from glaciers, ice sheets and others 15

1.4 Effects on physicochemical parameters 19

1.4.1 Large-scale changes in surface temperature 19

1.4.2 Large-scale changes in plankton concentration and primary productivity 20

1.4.3 Changes in other physicochemical parameters 26

1.5 Discussion and conclusions 29

2 New techniques in environment monitoring Begoña Espiña Marta Prado Stephanie Vial Verónica C. Martins José Rivas Paulo P. Freitas 35

2.1 Introduction 35

2.2 In situ harmful algal bloom monitoring 36

2.2.1 Optical remote sensing 36

2.2.2 Automated monitoring 38

2.2.3 HABs sampling based on absorption 42

2.3 Liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry 44

2.4 Biosensors for HABs monitoring 46

2.4.1 Optical biosensors 49

2.4.2 Electrochemical biosensors 51

2.4.3 Mass biosensors 51

2.4.4 Magnetic-based biosensors 52

2.5 Advances in nanotechnology for HAB detection 53

2.5.1 Nanoparticles 54

2.5.2 Analytical nano-applications 55

2.6 Molecular biology-based techniques for HABs detection 64

2.6.1 Overview 64

2.6.2 DNA/RNA targets 65

2.6.3 Hybridization-based techniques 70

2.6.4 Amplification-based techniques 72

2.6.5 Aptamers for toxin detection 75

2.7 Future perspectives 76

3 Responses of marine animals to ocean acidification Mikko Nikinmaa Katja Anttila 99

3.1 Introduction 99

3.2 What causes ocean acidification 99

3.2.1 Effect of atmospheric carbon dioxide loading 100

3.2.2 Influence of primary production 101

3.2.3 Carbon balance in coastal areas 101

3.2.4 Interactions between temperature changes and ocean acidification 102

3.3 Processes of animals that are expected to be affected 102

3.3.1 pH regulation 102

3.3.2 Calcification 107

3.3.3 Development 108

3.3.4 Oxygen transport and metabolism 110

3.3.5 Behavior 114

3.4 Conclusions 115

4 Alexandrium spp.: genetic and ecological factors influencing saxitoxin production and proliferation Shauna Murray Uwe John Anke Kremp 125

4.1 Introduction 125

4.2 Alexandrium taxonomy, phylogenetics and species evolution 126

4.3 What are saxitoxins? 129

4.3.1 Which species produce saxitoxins? 130

4.3.2 The sxt genes in dinoflagellates 131

4.4 Ecological factors influencing Alexandrium spp. proliferation and toxicity 133

4.4.1 The role of ecophysiotogical adaptations in ecology and bloom formation of Alexandrium life cycles 133

4.4.2 Mixotrophic nutrition 133

4.4.3 Allelopathy 134

4.5 Effects of environmental factors on Alexandrium proliferation and toxicity 135

4.5.1 Nutrients 135

4.5.2 Temperature 135

4.5.3 CO2 138

4.5.4 Salinity 139

4.6 Adaptation to changing climate conditions 141

5 Potential effects of climate change on cyanobacterial toxin production Susanna A. Wood Jonathan Puddick Hugo Borges Daniel R. Dietrich David P. Hamilton 155

5.1 Introduction 155

5.1.1 Microcystins and nodularins 156

5.1.2 Cylindrospermopsins 157

5.1.3 Saxitoxins 157

5.1.4 Anatoxin-a and homo-anatoxin-a 157

5.1.5 Anatoxin-a(S) 158

5.1.6 Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) 158

5.2 Effects of climate change on common toxin producing species 159

5.2.1 Microcystis 160

5.2.2 Cylindrospermopsis 161

5.2.3 Dolichospermum 161

5.2.4 Planktothrix 162

5.2.5 Phormidium 163

5.3 Effects of climate change on toxin regulation 164

5.3.1 Microcystins 164

5.3.2 Nodularins 166

5.3.3 Cylindrospermopsins 166

5.3.4 Saxitoxins 167

5.3.5 Anatoxins 167

5.4 Climate change and its effect on cyanobacteria and toxin production in Polar environments 168

5.5 Conclusions 170

6 Harmful marine algal blooms and climate change: progress on a formidable predictive challenge Gustaaf M. Hallegraeff 181

6.1 Introduction 181

6.2 Algal bloom range extensions and climate change 182

6.3 Range extensions further aided by ship ballast water transport 184

6.4 The formidable challenge of predicting phytoplankton community responses 187

6.5 We can learn from the fossil record, long-term plankton records and decadal scale climate events 188

6.6 Mitigation of the likely impact on seafood safety 188

7 Global warming, climate patterns and toxic cyanobacteria Elke S. Reichwaldt Som Cit Sinang Anas Ghadouani 195

7.1 Introduction 195

7.2 The effect of global warming on inland water bodies 196

7.2.1 Direct effects of global warming on inland water bodies 196

7.2.2 Indirect effects of global warming on inland water bodies 197

7.3 The ecology of cyanobacteria and toxin production 203

7.3.1 Environmental factors affecting cyanobacterial biomass 203

7.3.2 Environmental factors affecting microcystin production 204

7.3.3 Ecological factors affecting cyanobacterial blooms: competition 206

7.4 Direct and indirect effects of global warming on cyanobacterial growth 208

7.4.1 Temperature, stratification, and mixing 215

7.4.2 Nutrients 216

7.4.3 Salinity 217

7.4.4 Turbidity and pH 217

7.5 Direct and indirect effects of global warming on microcystin concentration 217

7.6 Why should we care? 219

8 Human impact in Mediterranean coastal ecosystems and climate change: emerging toxins Aristidis Vlamis Panagiota Katikou 239

8.1 Introduction 239

8.2 Mediterranean coastal ecosystems - 240

8.2.1 Human impact 242

8.2.2 Socio-economical implications of Climate Change 244

8.2.3 Effect to ecosystem from extreme events of climate change 245

8.2.4 Ecological response to Climate Change 246

8.3 Emerging toxins in the Mediterranean Sea 248

8.3.1 Identified emerging toxins and climate change effects 249

8.4 Conclusion 259

9 Gambierdiscus, the cause of ciguatera fish poisoning: an increased human health threat influenced by climate change Gurjeet S. Kohli Hazel Farrell Shauna A. Murray 273

9.1 The genus Gambierdiscus 273

9.2 Morphology and phylogenetics 274

9.3 Geographic distribution and abundance 279

9.3.1 The Pacific and Indian Ocean Regions 282

9.3.2 The Atlantic Ocean Region 282

9.4 CTXs and MTXs 283

9.5 Toxicity of different species of Gambierdiscus 288

9.6 Detection of CTXs and MTXs in seafood 289

9.7 Conclusion 303

10 Control and management of Harmful Algal Blooms Dani J. Barrington Xi Xiao Liah X. Coggins Anas Ghadouani 313

10.1 Introduction 313

10.2 Global water crisis 313

10.3 Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins 314

10.4 Cyanobacterial prevention and mitigation 315

10.5 Cyanobacterial management 320

10.6 Case study: The management of cyanobacteria in waste stabilization ponds 323

10.7 Treatment of cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins with hydrogen peroxide 326

10.8 New techniques for the control and characterization of cyanobacterial blooms 335

10.8.1 Allelopathic control of cyanobacteria 335

10.8.2 Optimization of the FDA-PI method using flow cytometry to measure metabolic activity of cyanobacteria 336

10.9 New perspectives and future directions 338

11 Global climate change profile and its possible effects on the reproductive cycle, sex expression and sex change of shellfish as marine toxins vectors Joaquín Espinosa Sara Silva-Salvado Óscar García-Martín 359

11.1 Introduction 359

11.2 Shellfish as marine toxins vectors 360

11.2.1 General considerations 360

11.2.2 Global increase in HABs 362

11.2.3 Global climate change 365

11.3 Reproductive cycle, sex expression and sex change in shellfish 378

11.3.1 Reproductive cycle, reproductive period and sex expression in bivalve mollusks 378

11.3.2 What is sex? 379

11.3.3 Sex determination: everything happens in the embryo 380

11.3.4 Sex determination of the gonad and sex differentiation of primordial germ cells (PGCs): molecular basis and regulation 381

11.3.5 Gonad somatic sex and germline sex in bivalve mollusks 382

11.3.6 Sex, sex reversal, types of sexuality and sex change in bivalve mollusks 384

11.3.7 What does sex change mean and how could this process be performed by bivalve mollusks? 391

11.3.8 Temperature, photoperiod, reproductive cycle and sex change in bivalve mollusks 393

11.3.9 Climate change, reproductive cycle, sex expression and sex change in bivalve mollusks 398

11.4 Concluding remarks 402

12 Effects on world food production and security M. Carmen Louzao Natalia Vilariño Luis M. Botana 417

12.1 Introduction 417

12.2 Foodborne and waterborne diseases 417

12.3 Zoonosis and other animal diseases 418

12.4 Product safety in fisheries 419

12.5 Aquaculture food production 423

12.6 Harmful algal blooms 423

12.6.1 Impact of temperature change on harmful algal blooms 424

12.6.2 Acidification of waters and effect on harmful algal blooms 426

12.6.3 Impact of sea-level rise and increased precipitation on harmful algal communities 426

12.6.4 Microalgal toxicity 427

12.7 Harmful algal blooms and aquatic food safety 428

12.7.1 Predictive modeling 433

12.8 Future perspectives 434

13 From science to policy: dynamic adaptation of legal regulations on aquatic blotoxlns Natalia Vilariño M. Carmen Louzao María Fraga Luis M. Botana 441

13.1 Introduction 441

13.2 Current worldwide regulations on marine phycotoxins 441

13.2.1 Maximum permitted levels 441

13.2.2 Official detection methods 446

13.3 Current worldwide regulations on cyanotoxins 447

13.4 New occurrences of toxic episodes challenge protection of consumer's safety 455

13.5 Limitations for the development and implementation of new regulations: from science to policy or from policy to science? 457

13.5.1 Technical limitations for recent/future toxin regulations 457

13.5.2 Toxicological limitations for new toxin regulations 461

13.5.3 Economic limitations 465

13.6 Modification of monitoring and surveillance programs 466

13.7 Integrative example: tetrodotoxin as a biomarker of climate change 467

13.8 Concluding remarks 470

Index 483

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