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This volume contains the papers presented at the Second International Work ing Conference on Dependable Computing for Critical Applications, sponsored by IFIP Working Group lOA and held in Tucson, Arizona on February 18-20, 1991. In keeping with the first such conference on this topic, which took place at the University of California, Santa Barbara in 1989, this meeting was like wise concerned with an important basic question: Can we rely on Computers? In more precise terms, it addressed various aspects of computer system de pendability, a broad concept defined as th'e trustworthiness of computer service such that reliance can justifiably be placed on this service. Given that this term includes attributes such as reliability, availability, safety, and security, it is our hope that these papers will contribute to further integration of these ideas in the context of critical applications. The program consisted of 20 papers and three panel sessions. The papers were selected from a total of 61 submissions at a November 1990 meeting of the Program Committee in Ann Arbor, Michigan. We were very fortunate to have a broad spectrum of interests represented, with papers in the final program coming from seven different countries, representing work at universities, corporations, and government agencies. The process was greatly facilitated by the diligent work of the Program Committee and the quality of reviews provided by outside referees. In addition to the paper presentations, there were three panel sessions or ganized to examine particular topics in detail.
Table of ContentsDistributed Systems I.- Architectural Foundations, Concepts and Methods Behind ISACS A Real-Time Intelligent System for Critical Applications.- Implementing Forward Recovery Using Checkpoints in Distributed Systems.- Replication.- Evaluating the Impact of Network Partitions on Replicated Data Availability.- A Distributed Systems Architecture Supporting High Availability and Reliability.- Evaluation.- A Numerical Technique for the Hierarchical Evaluation of Large, Closed Fault-Tolerant Systems.- Fault Injection Simulation: A Variance Reduction Technique for Systems with Rare Events.- Limits of Parallelism in Fault-Tolerant Multiprocessors.- Correlated Failures.- Correlated Hardware Failures in Redundant Systems.- Impact of Correlated Failures on Dependability in a VAXcluster System.- Design Diversity.- Assuring Design Diversity in N-Version Software: A Design Paradigm for N-Version Programming.- An Empirical Investigation of the Effect of Formal Specifications on Program Diversity.- Verification Techniques.- The Proof of Correctness of a Fault-Tolerant Circuit Design.- Verification of Memory Management Units.- High Level Design Proof of a Reliable Computing Platform.- Distributed Systems II.- A Membership Protocol Based on Partial Order.- A Fault-Tolerant Architecture for the Intellectual Distributed Processing System.- Validation.- A New Approach of Formal Proof: Probabilistic Validation.- Testing Programs to Detect Malicious Faults.- Signatures.- On-Line Signature Learning and Checking.- A New Efficient Signature Technique for Process Monitoring in Critical Systems.