2011 Reprint of 1956 edition. Economic & Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 (also referred to as The Paris Manuscripts) are a series of notes written in 1844 by Karl Marx. Not published by Marx during his lifetime, they were first released in 1927 by researchers in the Soviet Union. The notebooks are an early expression of Marx's analysis of economics and critique of G.W.F. Hegel. The notes cover a wide range of topics including private property, communism, and money. They are best known for their early expression of Marx's argument that the conditions of modern industrial societies result in the estrangement (or alienation) of wage-workers from their own life.