Assuming no prior knowledge, Educational Research by R. Burke Johnson and Larry Christensen offers a comprehensive, easily digestible introductory research methods text for undergraduate and graduate students. Readers will develop an understanding of the multiple research methods and strategies used in education and related fields; how to read and critically evaluate published research; and the ability to write a proposal, construct a questionnaire, and conduct an empirical research study on their own. Students rave about the clarity of this best seller and its usefulness for their studies, enabling them to become critical consumers and users of research.
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About the Author
Burke Johnson is a professor in the Professional Studies Department at the University of South Alabama. His Ph D is from the REMS (research, evaluation, measurement, and statistics) program in the College of Education at the University of Georgia. He also has graduate degrees in psychology, sociology, and public administration, which have provided him with a multidisciplinary perspective on research methodology. He was guest editor for a special issue of Research in the Schools focusing on mixed research (available online at www.msera.org/rits_131.htm) and completed a similar guest editorship for the American Behavioral Scientist. He was an associate editor of the Journal of Mixed Methods Research. Burke is first author of Educational Research: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Approaches (Sage, 2014, 5th edition); second author of Research Methods, Design, and Analysis (Pearson, 2014, 12th edition); coeditor (with Sharlene Hesse-Biber) of The Oxford Handbook of Multimethod and Mixed Methods Research Inquiry (2015); coeditor (with Paul Vogt) of Correlation and Regression Analysis (2012); and associate editor of The SAGE Glossary of the Social and Behavioral Sciences (2009).
Larry Christensen (Ph D University of Southern Mississippi) is Professor and Chair of the Department of Psychology at the University of South Alabama. Larry is the author of several successful textbooks and has published more than 60 journal articles.
Table of Contents
PrefaceAcknowledgmentsPart I: Introduction1 Introduction to Educational Research Why Study Educational Research? Areas of Educational Research Examples of Educational Research General Kinds of Research Basic and Applied Research Evaluation Research Action Research Orientational Research Sources of Knowledge Experience Reasoning The Scientific Approach to Knowledge Generation Dynamics of Science Basic Assumptions of Science Scientific Methods Theory The Principle of Evidence Objectives of Educational Research Overview of This Book Summary Key Terms Discussion Questions Research Exercises Relevant Internet Sites Recommended Reading2 Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research Characteristics of the Three Research Paradigms Quantitative Research Methods: Experimental and Nonexperimental Research Variables Experimental Research Nonexperimental Research Qualitative Research Methods Phenomenology Ethnography Narrative Inquiry Case Study Research Grounded Theory Mixed Research (or Mixed Methods Research) The Advantages of Mixed Research Our Research Typology Summary Key Terms Discussion Questions Research Exercises Relevant Internet Sites Recommended Reading3 Action Research for Lifelong Learning Defining Action Research Origins of Action Research Basic Scientific Research Versus Action Research Types of Action Research The Cycle of Action Research Strengths and Weaknesses of Action Research Action Research Journaling Action Research in the Remaining Chapters of This Book Summary Key Terms Discussion Questions Research Exercises Relevant Internet Sites Recommended Reading NotePart II: Planning the Research Study4 How to Review the Literature and Develop Research Questions Sources of Research Ideas Everyday Life Practical Issues Past Research Theory Ideas That Can’t Be Resolved Through Empirical Research Review of the Literature Literature Review for Quantitative Research Studies Literature Review for Qualitative Research Studies Literature Review for Mixed Research Studies Sources of Information Feasibility of the Study Statement of the Research Problem Stating a Quantitative Research Problem Stating a Qualitative Research Problem Stating a Mixed Research Problem Statement of the Purpose of the Study Statement of Purpose in a Quantitative Study Statement of Purpose in a Qualitative Study Statement of Purpose in a Mixed Methods Study Statement of Research Questions Statement of a Quantitative Research Question Statement of a Qualitative Research Question Statement of Research Questions in Mixed Research Formulating Hypotheses Consumer Use of the Literature Action Research Reflection Summary Key Terms Discussion Questions Proposal Exercises Relevant Internet Sites Recommended Reading5 How to Write a Research Proposal Framework of the Research Proposal Strategies for Writing Each Section of the Research Proposal Introduction Method Research Participants Design Apparatus and/or Instruments Procedure Data Analysis Abstract Action Research Reflection Summary Key Terms Discussion Questions Proposal Exercise Relevant Internet Sites Recommended Reading6 Research Ethics What Are Research Ethics? Ethical Concerns Relationship Between Society and Science Professional Issues Treatment of Research Participants Ethical Guidelines for Research With Humans Informed Consent Informed Consent and Minors as Research Participants Passive Versus Active Consent Additional Consent Deception Freedom to Withdraw Protection From Mental and Physical Harm Confidentiality, Anonymity, and the Concept of Privacy Institutional Review Board Ethical Issues in Electronic Research Informed Consent and Internet Research Privacy and Internet Research Debriefing and Internet Research Ethical Issues in Preparing the Research Report Authorship Writing the Research Report Action Research Reflection Summary Key Terms Discussion Questions Research Exercises Proposal Exercises Relevant Internet Sites Recommended ReadingPart III: Foundations of Research7 Standardized Measurement and Assessment Defining Measurement Scales of Measurement Nominal Scale Ordinal Scale Interval Scale Ratio Scale Assumptions Underlying Testing and Assessment Identifying a Good Test or Assessment Procedure Overview of Reliability and Validity Reliability Validity Using Reliability and Validity Information in Your Research Educational and Psychological Tests Intelligence Tests Personality Tests Educational Assessment Tests Sources of Information About Tests Action Research Reflection Summary Key Terms Discussion Questions Research Exercises Proposal Exercises Relevant Internet Sites Recommended Reading Notes8 How to Construct a Questionnaire What Is a Questionnaire? Principles of Questionnaire Construction Principle 1. Make sure the questionnaire items match your research objectives. Principle 2. Understand your research participants. Principle 3. Use natural and familiar language. Principle 4. Write items that are clear, precise, and relatively short. Principle 5. Do not use “leading” or “loaded” questions. Principle 6. Avoid double-barreled questions. Principle 7. Avoid double negatives. Principle 8. Determine whether an open-ended or a closed-ended question is needed. Principle 9. Use mutually exclusive and exhaustive response categories for closed-ended questions. Principle 10. Consider the different types of response categories available for closed-ended questionnaire items. Principle 11. Use multiple items to measure abstract constructs. Principle 12. Consider using multiple methods when measuring abstract constructs. Principle 13. Use caution if you reverse the wording in some of the items to prevent response sets in multi-item scales. Principle 14. Develop a questionnaire that is properly organized and easy for the participant to use. Principle 15. Always pilot test your questionnaire. Putting It All Together Action Research Reflection Summary Key Terms Discussion Questions Research Exercises Proposal Exercise Relevant Internet Sites Recommended Reading Notes9 Methods of Data Collection Tests Technology and Tests Questionnaires Technology and Questionnaires Interviews Technology and Interviews Quantitative Interviews Qualitative Interviews Focus Groups Technology and Focus Groups Observation Quantitative Observation Qualitative Observation Visual Data Constructed and Secondary or Existing Data Action Research Reflection Summary Key Terms Discussion Questions Research Exercises Relevant Internet Sites Recommended Reading10 Sampling in Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research Terminology Used in Sampling Random Sampling Techniques Simple Random Sampling Systematic Sampling Stratified Random Sampling Cluster Random Sampling Nonrandom Sampling Techniques Convenience Sampling Quota Sampling Purposive Sampling Snowball Sampling Random Selection and Random Assignment Determining the Sample Size When Random Sampling Is Used Sampling in Qualitative Research Sampling in Mixed Research Action Research Reflection Summary Key Terms Discussion Questions Research Exercises Proposal Exercises Relevant Internet Sites Recommended Reading Notes11 Validity of Research Results in Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research Validity Issues in the Design of Quantitative Research Internal Validity (i.e., Causal Validity) Two Major Types of Causal Relationships Criteria for Inferring Causation Threats to Internal Validity in Single-Group Designs Threats to Internal Validity in Multigroup Designs External Validity (i.e., Generalizing Validity) Population Validity Ecological Validity Temporal Validity Treatment Variation Validity Outcome Validity Construct Validity Treatment Diffusion Statistical Conclusion Validity Research Validity (or “Trustworthiness”) in Qualitative Research Descriptive Validity Interpretive or Emic Validity Theoretical Validity Internal Validity External Validity Research Validity (or “Legitimation”) in Mixed Research Action Research Reflection Summary Key Terms Discussion Questions Research Exercises Relevant Internet Sites Recommended Reading NotesPart IV: Selecting a Research MethodSection A: Quantitative Research Methods: Five Major Approaches12 Experimental Research: Weak and Strong Designs The Experiment Experimental Research Settings Field Experiment Laboratory Experiment Internet Experiment Independent Variable Manipulation Ways to Manipulate an Independent Variable Control of Confounding Variables Random Assignment Matching Holding the Extraneous Variable Constant Building the Extraneous Variable Into the Research Design Analysis of Covariance Counterbalancing Experimental Research Designs Weak Experimental Research Designs Strong Experimental Research Designs Factorial Designs Repeated-Measures Designs Factorial Designs Based on a Mixed Model Action Research Reflection Summary Key Terms Discussion Questions Research Exercises Relevant Internet Sites Recommended Reading Notes13 Experimental Research: Quasi and Single-Case Designs Quasi-Experimental Research Designs Nonequivalent Comparison-Group Design Interrupted Time-Series Design Regression-Discontinuity Design Single-Case Experimental Designs A-B-A and A-B-A-B Designs Multiple-Baseline Design Changing-Criterion Design Methodological Considerations in Using Single-Case Designs Action Research Reflection Summary Key Terms Discussion Questions Research Exercises Relevant Internet Sites Recommended Reading Note14 Nonexperimental Quantitative Research Steps in Nonexperimental Research Independent Variables in Nonexperimental Research Simple Cases of Nonexperimental Quantitative Research Three Required Conditions for Cause-and-Effect Relationships Applying the Three Required Conditions for Causation in Nonexperimental Research Techniques of Control in Nonexperimental Research (i.e., How to Design Strong Nonexperimental Research) Matching Holding the Extraneous Variable Constant Statistical Control Interlude (The Study of Causal Relationships in Epidemiology) Classifying Nonexperimental Research by Time and Research Objective The Time Dimension in Nonexperimental Research Cross-Sectional Research Longitudinal Research Retrospective Research The Research Objective Dimension in Nonexperimental Research Descriptive Nonexperimental Research Predictive Nonexperimental Research Explanatory Nonexperimental Research Action Research Reflection Summary Key Terms Discussion Questions Research Exercises Proposal Exercises Relevant Internet Sites Recommended Reading NotesSection B: Qualitative Research Methods: Five Major Approaches15 Narrative Inquiry and Case Study Research Narrative Inquiry I. Introduction: The Importance of Coming to Terms and Definitions II. Designing a Narrative Study III. Narrative Inquiry: So Much More Than Telling Stories Case Study Research What Is a Case? Types of Case Study Research Designs Data Collection, Analysis, and Report Writing Action Research Reflection Summary Key Terms Discussion Questions Research Exercises Proposal Exercises Relevant Internet Sites Recommended Reading Note16 Phenomenology, Ethnography, and Grounded Theory Phenomenology Examples of Phenomenology Types of Phenomenology Data Collection, Analysis, and Report Writing Ethnography The Idea of Culture Examples of Ethnographic Research Types of Ethnographic Research Data Collection, Analysis, and Report Writing Grounded Theory Characteristics of a Grounded Theory Example of a Grounded Theory Data Collection, Analysis, and Report Writing Action Research Reflection Summary Key Terms Discussion Questions Research Exercises Proposal Exercises Relevant Internet Sites Recommended Reading NoteSection C: Mixed Methods Research: Many Approaches17 Mixed Research The Research Continuum Types of Mixed Research Designs Examples of Qualitatively Driven, Quantitatively Driven, and Equal-Status or Interactive Studies Stages of the Mixed Research Process Step 1. Determine Whether a Mixed Design Is Appropriate Step 2. Determine the Rationale for Using a Mixed Design Step 3. Select or Construct the Mixed Research Design and Mixed Sampling Design Step 4. Collect Data Step 5. Analyze the Data Step 6. Continually Validate the Data Step 7. Continually Interpret the Data and Findings Step 8. Write the Research Report Limitations of Mixed Research Action Research Reflection Summary Key Terms Discussion Questions Research Exercises Proposal Exercises Relevant Internet Sites Recommended ReadingPart V: Analyzing the Data18 Descriptive Statistics Descriptive Statistics Frequency Distributions Graphic Representations of Data Bar Graphs Histograms Line Graphs Scatter Plots Measures of Central Tendency Mode Median Mean A Comparison of the Mean, Median, and Mode Measures of Variability Range Variance and Standard Deviation Standard Deviation and the Normal Distribution Measures of Relative Standing Percentile Ranks z Scores Examining Relationships Among Variables Contingency Tables Regression Analysis Action Research Reflection Summary Key Terms Discussion Questions Research Exercises Proposal Exercises Relevant Internet Sites Recommended Reading Notes19 Inferential Statistics Sampling Distributions Sampling Distribution of the Mean Estimation Point Estimation Interval Estimation Hypothesis Testing Null and Alternative Hypotheses Directional Alternative Hypotheses Examining the Probability Value and Making a Decision The Hypothesis-Testing Decision Matrix Controlling the Risk of Errors Hypothesis Testing in Practice t Test for Independent Samples One-Way Analysis of Variance Post Hoc Tests in Analysis of Variance t Test for Correlation Coefficients t Test for Regression Coefficients Chi-Square Test for Contingency Tables Other Significance Tests Action Research Reflection Summary Key Terms Discussion Questions Research Exercises Proposal Exercises Relevant Internet Sites Recommended Reading Notes20 Data Analysis in Qualitative and Mixed Research Interim Analysis Memoing Analysis of Visual Data Data Entry and Storage Segmenting, Coding, and Developing Category Systems Inductive and A Priori Codes Co-Occurring and Facesheet Codes First-Stage and Second-Stage Coding Enumeration “Themeing the Data” and Creating Hierarchical Category Systems Identifying Relationships Among Categories Drawing Diagrams Corroborating and Validating Results Computer Programs for Qualitative Data Analysis Data Analysis in Mixed Research Mixed Analysis Matrix Analytical Procedures in Mixed Data Analysis Constructing Joint Displays in Mixed Data Analysis Action Research Reflection Summary Key Terms Discussion Questions Research Exercise Proposal Exercises Relevant Internet Sites Recommended Reading Notes Chapter 20 Appendix: Additional Types of Codes for Qualitative ResearchPart VI: Writing the Research Report21 How to Prepare a Research Report and Use APA Style Guidelines General Principles Related to Writing the Research Report (I) Language (I.1) Editorial Style (I.2) Reference List (I.3) Typing (I.4) Writing an APA-Style Quantitative Research Report (II) Title Page (II.1) Abstract (II.2) Introduction (II.3) Method (II.4) Results (II.5) Discussion (II.6) References (II.7) Footnotes (II.8) Tables (II.9) Figures (II.10) Example of an APA-Style Manuscript Writing Qualitative Research Reports Writing Mixed Research Reports Action Research Reflection Summary Key Term Discussion Questions Research Exercises Proposal Exercises Relevant Internet Sites Recommended ReadingAppendix: Citations for Journal Articles Noted in the MarginsGlossaryReferencesAuthor IndexSubject IndexAbout the Authors
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