Electronic Warfare In The Information Age

Electronic Warfare In The Information Age

by D. Curtis Schleher


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Here's an advanced practitioner's guide to the latest concepts and threats associated with modern electronic warfare (EW). This new book identifies and explains the newest radar and communications threats, and provides EW and radar engineers, managers, and technical professionals with practical, "how-to" information on designing and implementing ECM and ECCM systems.

Written by a world-renowned expert in radar and electronic warfare, the book helps you develop state-of-the-art ESM systems designed specifically to exploit the vulnerabilities of modern radar. It also identifies and evaluates the latest ESM receiving equipment, and outlines advanced ECM methods, including monopulse deception, coherent radar jamming, and high-ERP generation. Other well-structured sections cover modern ECCM countermeasure techniques, the impact of new stealth technology on ESM and ECM requirements, jammer upgrading procedures, and much more.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780890065266
Publisher: Artech House, Incorporated
Publication date: 06/30/1999
Series: Artech House Radar Library Series
Pages: 624
Sales rank: 1,204,779
Product dimensions: 6.20(w) x 9.30(h) x 1.60(d)

Read an Excerpt

Chapter 1: Electronic Warfare-Threats,Requirements, and Principles

Electronic warfare (EW) is a military action whose objective is to control the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum. To accomplish this objective, both offensive electronic attack (EA) and defensive electronic protection (EP) actions are required. In addition, electronic warfare support (ES) actions are necessary to supply the intelligence and threat recognition that allow implementation of both EA and EP.

Figure 1.1 depicts the formal military terminology and definitions associated with EW. These broadened definitions have evolved from former definitions where functions were called electronic countermeasures (ECM), electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM), and electronic warfare support measures (ESM) [1]. The new definitions envision an increased EA function including the use of directed energy weapons (lasers, microwave radiation, particle beams), antiradiation missiles (ARMs) and electromagnetic pulses (nuclear weapons destruction of electronics) to destroy enemy electronic equipment. The use of EP is also expanded to include not only protection of individual electronic equipment (ECCM), but use of such measures as electromagnetic control (EMCON), electromagnetic hardening, EW frequency deconfliction and communications security (COMSEC).

ES focuses on action taken for the purpose of near real-time threat recognition in support of immediate decisions involving EA, EP, weapon avoidance, targeting, or other tactical employment of forces. The key actions taken here are intercepting, identifying, analyzing, and locating enemy radiations. EM radiations are generally intercepted using sensitive receivers (i.e., ES receivers) that cover those frequency bands associated with significant threats.

Identification involves comparing the intercepted data against threat signatures stored in a threat library. Location is generally accomplished through a combination of spatially dispersed interceptions.

EA focuses on the offensive use of the electromagnetic spectrum or directed energy to directly attack enemy combat capability. It combines nondestructive actions (called "soft kill") involving electronic jamming and deception to degrade or neutralize enemy weapons with the destructive capabilities (called "hard kill") of ARMs and directed energy weapons. Jamming is defined as the deliberate radiation, reradiation, or reflection of EM energy for the purpose of destroying, damaging, or disrupting enemy use of the EM spectrum; while deception is defined as the deliberate radiation, reradiation, alteration, suppression, absorption, denial, enhancement, or reflection of EM energy in a manner intended to convey misleading information and to deny valid information to enemy electronics-dependent weapons. In a tactical environment, jamming radiations are subject to enemy actions (i.e., ARM attack) and must be carefully controlled. Examples of tactical deception are the use of ARM decoys and the radiation of false emissions to deceive an enemy's signal intelligence (SIGINT) system.

The destructive capability of EA is a relatively new concept in EW. ARMs have been effective in recent conflicts and are the most advanced method of employing destructive EA. Directed energy weapons use lasers or high-powered microwave transmitters to either destroy or disable electronic equipment.

EP focuses on defensive EW for the protection of friendly forces against enemy use of the EM spectrum and also against any unintentional radiations from friendly emitters. Electronic masking, emission control, the use of wartime reserve modes (WARM), electronic hardening, and the integration of EW systems into overall spectrum management are examples of EP actions.

An integral part of EP involves measures taken to imbed various techniques (ECCM) into electronic equipment to make them less vulnerable to EA. These actions reflect the continuing battle between EA and EP designers whereby each side attempts to gain the upper hand over the other. In essence, this is a battle of resources, with the advantage going to the side that invests the most resources.

1.1 Information Warfare

Information warfare (IW) is a broad concept, embraced by the military, whose objective is to control the management and use of information to provide military advantage. Information-based warfare is both offensive and defensive in nature-ranging from measures that prohibit adversaries from exploiting information to corresponding measures to assure the integrity, availability, and interoperability of friendly information assets. Information-based warfare is also waged in political, economic and social arenas and is applicable over the entire national security spectrum under both peacetime and wartime conditions.

From the military viewpoint, IW (sometimes called information operations) is difficult to define and suffers from a paucity of conceptual and descriptive models, theory, and accompanying doctrine. As such, IW is a term that has come to represent an integrated strategy to recognize the importance of information in the command, control, and execution of military forces and in the implementation of national policy. A definition proposed for IW is: "Actions taken to achieve information superiority in support of national military strategy by affecting adversary information and information systems while leveraging and protecting our own information and information systems"

The current revolution in military affairs is largely rooted in the explosive advances which occurred in information technology. Vast amounts of data can be assimilated, processed, and made available to military users, allowing precision weapons to be directed against long-range targets. Protecting the integrity of these data is a major objective of current IW activity.

The global information infrastructure is a worldwide interconnection of communication networks, computers, data bases, and electronic equipment that make vast amounts of information available to users. It encompasses a wide range of equipment, including computers, satellites, fiber-optic transmission lines, microwave links, nets, scanners, television sets, displays, cable, video and audio tapes, fax machines, and telephone lines. This equipment forms information systems that collect, process, transmit, and disseminate information.

IW capitalizes on the growing sophistication of, connectivity to, and reliance on information technology. It targets information and information systems in order to affect the information dependent process [4]. Such information-dependent processes range from energy, finance, health, logistics, maintenance, transportation, personnel, control systems (e.g., air, sea, rail, road, river, pipeline, and canal transport systems), intelligence, command and control, and communications. All depend upon an assured availability of correct information at the time needed. Destroy or degrade the information or information service and the function is stopped or delayed. Exploiting this dependency relationship is the basis of IW.

As depicted in Figure 1.2, IW deals with a broad set of potential actions occurring in a timeline that involves both competitive (the introductory phase to military conflict) and conflict situations [6]. In the competitive phase, IW allows national level objectives to be achieved without combat. It involves covert actions that occur invisibly to most observers. As the combat timeline moves into conflict situations, IW is implemented using command and control warfare (C2W). C2W is fought at the military level against military decision makers, command and control systems, and combat systems. Its objective is to avoid or limit combat warning to the lowest possible level. It is fought visibly with military systems using overt actions...

Table of Contents

1Electronic Warfare--Threats, Requirements, and Principles1
1.1Information Warfare3
1.1.1Command and Control Warfare5
1.3EA Effect on Radar13
1.3.1The Effect of EA on Surveillance Radar16
1.3.2The Effect of EA on Tracking Radar20
1.3.3Defense Suppression25
1.4EA Effect on Communications31
1.4.1Communications Jamming Principles35
1.4.2EP of Communications Systems36
1.4.3EA Waveforms and Strategy40
1.4.4EA Against Military Communications Systems44 Data Links45 Communication Radio Nets47 Communications50
2Advanced Radar Threat63
2.1Low-Intensity Threat70
2.2Air Defense Radar74
2.2.1EP for Air Defense Radar82
2.3Phased Array Radars99
2.4Airborne Radar107
2.4.1Synthetic Aperture Radar110
2.4.2Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar115
2.4.3Space Time Adaptive Processing for Airborne Radar116
2.5EP Techniques for Surveillance and Tracking Radar120
3Modern EA Systems--Architecture, Types, and Technology133
3.1Onboard/Offboard Architectures136
3.2Operational EA Systems Architecture138
3.3EA Radar Jamming Waveforms147
3.3.1Noise Jamming149 Jammer Effectiveness156 Receiver164
3.3.2Deception Jamming167 Jamming Equations175
3.4Transponder Jamming180
3.5Support Jamming182
3.5.1Issues in Support Jamming184
3.5.2Direct Digital Synthesis Jamming187
3.5.3Digital Radio Frequency Memories188
3.5.4Comparison of DDS and DRFM Support Jamming189
4EA Against Modern Radar Systems201
4.1.1Linear FM Pulse Compression203
4.1.2Phase-Coded Pulse Compression213
4.1.3EA Against Pulse-Compression Radar219
4.2Pulsed Doppler Radar229
4.2.1EA Against PD Radar242
4.3.1EA Against Monopulse Radars262
4.4Coherent Sidelobe Cancelers279
4.4.1EA Against Coherent Sidelobe Cancelers287
5Digital Radio Frequency Memory293
5.1DRFM Architectures294
5.2DRFM Fundamentals301
5.3DRFM Sampling Techniques318
5.4Direct Digital Synthesizer322
5.5Advanced DRFM Architecture324
5.6Voltage Controlled Oscillators326
6Electronic Warfare Support333
6.1Signal and Threat Environment334
6.2Parameters Measured by the ES System336
6.2.1Pulse Deinterleaving337
6.2.2Processing of Multiple Pulse Emitters344
6.3Advanced ES Systems345
6.3.1Advanced Receiver Systems361 Receiver362 Receiver365 Bragg Cell Receiver371 Receiver373
6.4Direction Finding377
6.5Probability of Intercept386
7Expendables and Decoy Systems405
7.1Design of Expendable EA Systems409
7.2.1Chaff Fundamentals416
7.2.2Chaff Shielding Effects420
7.2.3Chaff Characteristics421
7.2.4Dispensing Chaff422
7.2.5Rope Chaff425
7.2.6Self-Protection Chaff425
7.2.7EP Against Chaff427
7.3Infrared Missile Attack429
7.3.1IR Missile Seeker Fundamentals434
7.3.2IR Missile Detection Range443
7.3.3IR Missile Seeker Counter Countermeasures448
7.3.4Missile Approach Warning451 Using Pulsed Doppler Radar453 Missile Countermeasures459
8Directed Energy Weapons and Stealth Technology471
8.1Directed Energy Weapons472
8.1.1High-Power Microwave Weapons475 Limitations478 Generation482 Effect on Electronic Equipment485
8.1.2High-Energy Lasers487 Atmospheric Propagation493 Beam Control495
8.1.3Charged Particle Beam (CPB) Weapons496
8.2.1Stealth Fundamentals508 the Radar Equation522 Considerations for Stealth Targets525
Appendix ARadar Jamming Modeling and Analysis Tool539
A.1Run Instructions540
A.2Program Discussion and Notes542
A.4RGJMAT Supporting Programs573
Acronym List579

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