Extra-grammatical Morphology in English: Abbreviations, Blends, Reduplicatives, and Related Phenomena

Extra-grammatical Morphology in English: Abbreviations, Blends, Reduplicatives, and Related Phenomena

by Elisa Mattiello

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Overview

Extra-grammatical morphology is a hitherto neglected area of research, highly marginalised because of its irregularity and unpredictability. Yet many neologisms in English are formed by means of extra-grammatical mechanisms, such as abbreviation, blending and reduplication, which therefore deserve both greater attention and more systematic study. This book analyses such phenomena.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783110293869
Publisher: De Gruyter
Publication date: 01/22/2013
Series: Topics in English Linguistics [TiEL] Series , #82
Pages: 349
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.06(h) x 0.04(d)
Age Range: 18 Years

About the Author

Elisa Mattiello, University of Pisa, Italy.

Table of Contents

Preface v

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Data 7

1.1.1 Lexical status of items 8

1.2 Key references 9

1.3 Organisation of the work 12

2 The theoretical framework 19

2.1 Extra-grammatical formations in Generative Morphology 20

2.2 Extra-grammatical formations in Naturalness Theory 22

2.2.1 Natural Morphology 22

2.2.2 Natural Phonology 26

2.3 Extra-grammatical morphology 28

2.3.1 Extra-grammatical vs. expressive morphology 30

2.3.2 Extra-grammatical vs. marginal morphology 32

2.3.3 Extra-grammatical vs. grammatical morphology 36

2.3.4 Grammaticality and regularity of extra-grammatical morphology 39

2.3.5 Extra-grammaticality and language change 43

2.3.6 Fundamental notions 48

2.3.7 Definition and properties of extra-grammatical morphology 55

3 Abbreviations 64

3.1 Definition, delimitation, and classification 67

3.1.1 Definition of clipping 68

3.1.2 Delimitation: Clipping vs. other processes 70

3.1.3 Classification and structure of clippings 72

3.1.4 Definition of acronyms and initialisms 82

3.1.5 Delimitation: Acronyms and initialisms vs. other processes 85

3.1.6 Classification of acronyms and initialisms 87

3.1.7 Acronyms and initialisms: Further remarks 93

3.2 Abbreviations as extra-grammatical phenomena 95

3.2.1 Irregularities in abbreviations 97

3.2.2 Regularities in abbreviations 101

3.2.3 Predictability in abbreviations 105

3.2.4 Criteria of well-formedness 109

4 Blends 111

4.1 Definition, delimitation, and classification 112

4.1.1 Definition and main features 112

4.1.2 Delimitation: Blending vs. other processes 115

4.1.3 Classification and structure of blends 118

4.1.4 Blends: Further remarks 125

4.2 Blending as an extra-grammatical phenomenon 127

4.2.1 Irregularities in blends 128

4.2.2 Regularities in blends 131

4.2.3 Predictability in blends 135

4.2.4 Criteria of well-formedness 138

5 Reduplicatives 141

5.1 Definition, delimitation, and classification 144

5.1.1 Definition 144

5.1.2 Delimitation: Reduplication vs. other processes 146

5.1.3 Classification and structure of reduplicatives 148

5.2 Reduplication as an extra-grammatical phenomenon 159

5.2.1 Irregularities in reduplicatives 160

5.2.2 Regularities in reduplicatives 162

5.2.3 Predictability in reduplicatives 165

5.2.4 Criteria of well-formedness 167

6 Minor phenomena 169

6.1 Back-formation: Definition, delimitation, and classification 170

6.1.1 Definition 172

6.1.2 Delimitation: Back-formation vs. other processes 173

6.1.3 Classification and structure of back-formed words 174

6.2 Back-formation as an extra-grammatical phenomenon 179

6.2.1 Irregularities in back-formation 180

6.2.2 Regularities in back-formation 182

6.2.3 Predictability in back-formation 183

6.2.4 Criteria of well-formedness 184

6.3 Infixation: Definition, delimitation, and classification 185

6.3.1 Definition 186

6.3.2 Delimitation: Infixation vs. other processes 187

6.3.3 Classification of infixes 188

6.4 Infixation as an extra-grammatical phenomenon 192

6.4.1 Irregularities in infixation 192

6.4.2 Regularities in infixation 194

6.4.3 Predictability in infixation 196

6.4.4 Criteria of well-formedness 197

6.5 Phonaesthemes: Definition, delimitation, and classification 198

6.5.1 Definition 200

6.5.2 Delimitation: Phonaesthemes vs. other morpho(no)logical concepts 202

6.5.3 Classification of phonaesthemes 202

6.6 Phonaesthemes as an extra-grammatical phenomenon 206

6.6.1 Irregularities in phonaesthemes 207

6.6.2 Criteria for identification 208

7 Extra-grammatical formations in use 210

7.1 Principles of contextual suitability 212

7.2 Typical contexts and domains 215

7.3 Contextualising extra-grammatical phenomena 216

7.3.1 Clippings 217

7.3.2 Acronyms and initialisms 225

7.3.3 Blends 232

7.3.4 Reduplicatives 238

7.3.5 Back-formation, infixation, and phonaesthemes 244

8 Conclusions 250

Notes 258

References 270

Sources for data 285

Lexical index 287

Subject index 330

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