From the Gulf to Ararat: Imperial Boundary Making in the Late Ottoman Empire

From the Gulf to Ararat: Imperial Boundary Making in the Late Ottoman Empire


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The western frontier between Persia and the Ottoman Empire was long a source of disputed claims by each. Supposedly settled under the Treaty of Ezerum of 1847, in reality it took a further seventy years to settle the details. This was achieved by the Turco-Persian Frontier Commission. Ernest Hubbard was Secretary to the Commission and a key factor in its success. From the Gulf to Ararat is his account of the Commission and of the regions through which they travelled. Often amusing but always informative it reveals the realities of making a boundary in practice and the need to be aware of local factors such as race, tradition, and religion, when dealing with boundary issues.With an introduction by Sue Littledale, the author's granddaughter, new photographs and biographical material, and a foreword by Richard Schofield, one of the leading international authorities on territorial questions in the Middle East, From the Gulf to Ararat offers an engaging yet remarkably relevant insight into the realities of boundary delimitation.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781784531218
Publisher: Bloomsbury Academic
Publication date: 11/13/2015
Edition description: New
Pages: 328
Product dimensions: 6.20(w) x 9.20(h) x 1.40(d)

About the Author

Gilbert Ernest Hubbard (1885-1951) was appointed Secretary to the British Commissioners on the Turco-Persian Frontier Commission in 1913. Following a spell at the Foreign Office he became Private Secretary to Sir Hamar Greenwood, Sectretary of State for Foreign Affairs, subsequently taking up the position of First Secretary to HM Legation in Peking. After a decade as diplomatic agent to the Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank he took up the position of Far Eastern Research Secretary at Chatham House. He wrote a number of books on industrialisation and British policy in the Far East.

Table of Contents

List of Illustrations ix

Foreword Richard Schofield xiii

Introduction Susan Littledale xxv

Preface xliii

Note xlvii

Map xlviii

1 The Frontier 1

2 Marseilles to Mohammerah 25

3 Preliminaries to the Start 42

4 Through the Land of Elam (1) 58

5 Through the Land of Elam (2) 76

6 The Wâli of Pusht-i-kuh 97

7 Towards Bagdad 104

8 Dar-el-Khalifeh 121

9 Mesopotamia in Retrospect 137

10 Entering Kurdistan 158

11 Along the Avromâns 174

12 The Heart of Kurdistan 192

13 Kurdish History, Customs, and Character 210

14 From the Zâb to Ushnu 226

15 The Last Stage 246

Afterword Susan Littledale 271

Index 277

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