Handbook of Environmental Degradation of Materials

Handbook of Environmental Degradation of Materials

by Myer Kutz

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Overview

Nothing stays the same for ever. The environmental degradation and corrosion of materials is inevitable and affects most aspects of life. In industrial settings, this inescapable fact has very significant financial, safety and environmental implications.

The Handbook of Environmental Degradation of Materials explains how to measure, analyse, and control environmental degradation for a wide range of industrial materials including metals, polymers, ceramics, concrete, wood and textiles exposed to environmental factors such as weather, seawater, and fire. Divided into sections which deal with analysis, types of degradation, protection and surface engineering respectively, the reader is introduced to the wide variety of environmental effects and what can be done to control them. The expert contributors to this book provide a wealth of insider knowledge and engineering knowhow, complementing their explanations and advice with Case Studies from areas such as pipelines, tankers, packaging and chemical processing equipment ensures that the reader understands the practical measures that can be put in place to save money, lives and the environment.

  • The Handbook’s broad scope introduces the reader to the effects of environmental degradation on a wide range of materials, including metals, plastics, concrete,wood and textiles
  • For each type of material, the book describes the kind of degradation that effects it and how best to protect it
  • Case Studies show how organizations from small consulting firms to corporate giants design and manufacture products that are more resistant to environmental effects

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781437734560
Publisher: Elsevier Science
Publication date: 12/31/2012
Sold by: Barnes & Noble
Format: NOOK Book
Pages: 936
File size: 19 MB
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About the Author

Myer Kutz has been heading his own firm, Myer Kutz Associates, Inc., since 1990. For the past several years, he has focused on writing and developing engineering handbooks on a wide range of technical topics, such as mechanical, materials, biomedical, transportation, and environmentally conscious engineering. Earlier, his firm supplied consulting services to a large client roster, including Fortune 500 companies, scientific societies, and large and small publishers. He has been a trustee of the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) and chaired committees of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Association of American Publishers. He holds engineering degrees from MIT and RPI, served as an officer in the US Army Ordnance Corp, and worked in the aerospace industry on the Apollo project. He is the author of nine books. He writes “The Scholarly Publishing Scene”, a column for the magazine Against the Grain. He lives in Delmar, New York, with his wife, Arlene.

Read an Excerpt

Handbook of Environmental Degradation of Materials


By Myer Kutz

Elsevier

Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
All rights reserved.
ISBN: 978-1-4377-3456-0



CHAPTER 1

Analysis of Failures of Metallic Materials Due to Environmental Factors

K.E. Perumal

Corrosion and Metallurgical Consultancy Centre, Mumbai, India


Chapter Outline
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Classification of Failures 3
1.3 Analysis of Failures 5
1.4 Case Histories of Environmental-Related Failures 6
1.5 Conclusions 31
References 32


1.1 Introduction

In a Handbook of Environmental Degradation of Materials, inclusion of the chapter "Analysis of Failures Due to Environmental Factors" assumes great importance. This is because unless the failures are analyzed in a systematic, detailed manner, the main causative factor arising from the environment cannot be determined. If such determination is not made and appropriate remedial measures are not implemented, there is no guarantee that the failure would not repeat itself on the replaced structure, column, vessel, pipe, tube, and so forth. This chapter presents certain case studies of recent failures, analyzed by the author, attributable to environmental factors. All the case studies are concerned with process equipment used in chemical process industries and made of metallic materials, carbon steel, stainless steel or nickel base alloy.


1.2 Classification of Failures

The word "failure" in chemical process equipment denotes unexpected unsatisfactory behavior of the equipment leading to non-functioning with respect to desired operation within the design life period of the equipment. Such behavior is often referred to as "premature failure." The causative factors can be classified into two main categories:

1. Material/Manufacturing-related

2. Environment/Operation-related


1.2.1 Material/Manufacturing-Related Causes

These causes arise from defects in material of construction (MOC) of the equipment and the fabrication steps through which the material was shaped and processed to arrive at the desired equipment. This chapter will not discuss this category of causes.


1.2.2 Environment-Related Causes

These causes arise from the environment to which the equipment is exposed during service, both the internal chemical process medium and the external medium, such as the prevailing atmosphere, insulation, and so forth. The operation-related causes are closely linked to the environment in that failures arise if the actual operating conditions fall short of or exceed the specified limits.


1.2.3 Environment-Related Categories

The environmental factors can be further classified into five categories, as follows:

1. Deviations within the chemical composition of the fluid being handled in the chemical process, such as the following:

• Condensation occurring within the vapor phase

• Concentration of aggressive species suddenly increasing

2. Unexpected impurities present within the fluid being handled, such as the following:

• Chloride and oxygen in boiler feed water

• Sulfur in petroleum crude

3. Operating temperatures different from those designed and specified

• Exceedingly high temperatures leading to creep, oxidation, sulfidation, etc.

4. Operating pressures different from those designed and specified, such as high pressures in autoclaves and boilers

5. The environment external to the process equipment becoming aggressive, such as marine and humid atmospheres attacking uninsulated external surfaces of the equipment

• Insulations becoming wet and corrosive


1.2.4 Environmentally Induced Failures

The environmentally induced failures in process equipment can be also classified into the following, based on the final appearance or mode in which the failure presents itself:

1. High temperature failures (temperatures higher than the boiling point of the process medium to which the equipment is exposed)

a. Oxidation

b. Sulfidation

c. Carburization

d. Chlorination

e. Creep

f. Plastic deformation—yielding, warping, sagging, bowing, etc.

2. Ambient temperature failures (temperatures less than the above-mentioned boiling point)

a. Corrosion in its various forms

• General uniform corrosion

• Pitting

• Crevice corrosion

• Galvanic corrosion

• Intergranular corrosion

• Selective leaching

• Stress corrosion cracking (including hydrogen-related cracking)

• Corrosion fatigue

• Erosion corrosion by high velocity and by slurry movement

b. Overload mechanical failure

3. Low temperature failures (temperatures lower than ambient, including sub-zero)

a. Brittle mechanical failures at temperatures lower than ductile brittle transition temperature (DBTT)


1.3 Analysis of Failures

This chapter presents a few case studies illustrating some of the above-listed environmental factors leading to premature failures of chemical process equipment. Each failure has been analyzed by the author to the extent the case merits, so as to arrive at the actual cause of the failure and to make appropriate recommendations to avoid the repetition of the same failure in the future.

The detailed failure analysis involves roughly the following steps.


1.3.1 SITE Visit

Site visits are for the following purposes:

• Inspect the failed equipment and also the nearby upstream and downstream equipment to the extent accessible.

• Closely examine the failed area and record relevant features.

• Obtain representative cut samples containing the failed spots and the failure features, and also samples from typical unfailed areas. Cutting of samples may not be possible and/or may not be necessary in many cases. Detailed records of the appearance of the failure must be relied upon in such cases, and at times such records are themselves sufficient. If necessary, non-destructive tests such as radiography, ultrasonic, or dye-penetrant tests need to be performed on the equipment in position at the failed locations.

• Obtain representative samples of scales, deposits, corrosion products, etc. in loose or adherent contact with the inside surface (process side) of the equipment.

• Thoroughly discuss with plant personnel the design, material of construction, specified and operating service conditions, and operational/inspection history of the failed equipment. The service conditions would include the chemical compositions of the fluids being handled, and the equipment's design, operating temperatures, and pressures. Variations in these factors over a meaningful period of time prior to the failure should also be noted.


1.3.2 Testing of Samples

Some of the more frequently used tests are listed below, but not all of these need to be performed. Depending upon the merit of each case, select from the following:

• Non-destructive tests like radiography, ultrasonic, dye-penetrant, etc.

• Chemical and/or X-ray diffraction analysis of both the metal and deposit samples

• Mechanical tests—strength, ductility, hardness, toughness, etc.

• Microscopic examination (optical and/or scanning)


The purpose of the tests is to trace the progress of the failure mode, to check the nature and purity of the metal and deposit samples, to determine whether any unusual impurity has been present in the medium, and to verify whether the equipment conforms to the stated specification under which it was designed, fabricated, and put to use.


1.3.3 Analysis, Interpretation, and Diagnosis of the Failure

The site observations and sample test results should be analyzed as a whole package. If necessary, support from published literature should be obtained. All these should be viewed together, with the aim of arriving at the right diagnosis and the root cause of the failure.


1.3.4 Submission of Failure Analysis Report

The report should contain the following:

• Statement of why the said failure analysis was necessary, verifying that the failure was premature

• Factual summary of the site observations and discussions

• Actual sample test results

• Interpretation, discussion and analysis of all the input information

• Diagnosis of the failure

• Explanation of all the observed symptoms using the stated diagnosis

• Easily implementable, practical recommendations to prevent similar failures in the particular site


1.4 Case Histories of Environmental-Related Failures

This section deals with the actual case studies conducted by the author. In the presentation of each case study, the environmental factor that was responsible for the failure is discussed in detail. In all the cases, the material and manufacturing quality of the equipment were checked during the failure analysis procedure, and were found to be not responsible for any failures. Hence, the material and manufacturing quality of the equipment are not discussed here.


1.4.1 Failure of A Natural Gas Feed Preheater in a Fertilizer Plant

A fertilizer plant producing ammonia and urea uses natural gas (NG) as the feedstock. The waste heat from the primary reformer is used to heat various streams for different purposes. One such purpose is to preheat the feedstock NG from ambient temperature to some elevated temperature prior to different processing steps. The preheating is done in a set of parallel coils. The coils are made of seamless pipes of low-alloy steel conforming to ASTM Specification A-335/P-11, a chromium-molybdenum alloy steel containing 1.0–1.5% Cr, 0.44–0.65% Mo and 0.05–0.15% C. The pipes are of size 4.5 in. outside diameter (OD) and 6.03 mm wall thickness (WT). The pipes failed by leaking at several places after about 23 months of operation, and this was considered a premature failure.
(Continues...)


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Table of Contents

Contents

Preface to the Second Edition....................     xv     

Preface to the First Edition....................     xvii     

Part One Analysis....................     1     

1 Analysis of Failures of Metallic Materials Due to Environmental Factors
K.E. Perumal....................     3     

2 Laboratory Assessment of Corrosion C.S. Brossia....................     33     

3 Lifetime Predictions of Plastics James A. Harvey....................     63     

Part Two Types of Degradation....................     85     

4 Electrochemical Corrosion R.A. Buchanan and E.E. Stansbury..............     87     

5 High Temperature Oxidation A.S. Khanna....................     127     

6 Chemical and Physical Aging of Plastics James A. Harvey.................     195     

7 Thermal Degradation of Polymer and Polymer Composites Sudip Ray and
Ralph P. Cooney....................     213     

8 Biofouling and Prevention: Corrosion, Biodeterioration and
Biodegradation of Materials Ji-Dong Gu....................     243     

9 Material Flammability M.L. Janssens....................     283     

10 Flame Retardants Ann Innes and Jim Innes....................     309     

11 Environmental Degradation of Reinforced Concrete Neal Berke............     337     

Part Three Protective Measures....................     357     

12 Cathodic Protection Richard W. Evitts....................     359     

13 Thermal and Fire Protective Fabric Systems Hechmi Hamouda..............     381     

14 Protection of Wood-Based Materials Jeffrey J. Morrell..................     407     

Part Four Surface Engineering....................     441     

15 The Intersection of Design, Manufacturing, and Surface Engineering
Gary P. Halada and Clive R. Clayton....................     443     

16 Environmental Degradation of Engineered Nanomaterials: Impact on
Materials Design and Use Gary P. Halada and Alexander Orlov...............     481     

17 Protective Coatings for Aluminum Alloys Thomas P. Schuman..............     503     

18 Corrosion Resistant Coatings and Paints R.G. Buchheit..................     539     

19 Thermal Spray Coatings Mitchell R. Dorfman....................     569     

20 Paint Weathering Tests Mark E. Nichols....................     597     

21 Polymer Coatings for Concrete Surfaces: Testing and Modeling
Cumaraswamy Vipulanandan and Jia Liu....................     621     

22 The Role of Intrinsic Defects in the Protective Behavior of Organic
Coatings S.R. Taylor....................     655     

23 Polymer Stabilization Pieter Gijsman....................     673     

Part Five Industrial Applications....................     715     

24 Degradation of Spacecraft Materials Joyce Dever, Bruce Banks, Kim de
Groh and Sharon Miller....................     717     

25 Cathodic Protection of Pipelines Branko N. Popov and Swaminatha P.
Kumaraguru....................     771     

26 Tanker Corrosion Ge Wang, John S. Spencer, Sittha Saidarasamoot,
Swieng Thuanboon, David L. Olson and Brajendra Mishra....................     799     

27 Barrier Packaging Materials Mikael S. Hedenqvist....................     833     

28 Corrosion Prevention and Control of Chemical Processing Equipment
William Stephen Tait....................     863     

Index....................     887     

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