Helping Students Overcome Substance Abuse: Effective Practices for Prevention and Intervention

Helping Students Overcome Substance Abuse: Effective Practices for Prevention and Intervention

by Jason J. Burrow-Sanchez, Leanne S. Hawken

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Unique in its coverage of both prevention and intervention, this book provides evidence-based strategies and ready-to-use tools for addressing substance abuse in middle and high school settings. Readers learn ways to identify students at risk and implement programs that meet a broad continuum of needs-from psychoeducational and support groups to individual intervention and referral to community services. Also provided is up-to-date information on the nature of adolescent substance abuse problems, their prevalence, and how they develop. Clearly organized and accessible, the book is designed for optimal practical utility. Special features include illustrative case examples, resources, and reproducible worksheets and forms.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781462530960
Publisher: Guilford Publications, Inc.
Publication date: 12/17/2013
Series: Guilford Practical Intervention in the Schools Series
Sold by: Barnes & Noble
Format: NOOK Book
Pages: 210
File size: 3 MB

About the Author

Jason J. Burrow-Sanchez, PhD, is Assistant Professor of Counseling Psychology in the Department of Educational Psychology at the University of Utah. He is a licensed psychologist, and his clinical experience includes work with adolescents struggling with substance abuse. His research interests are the prevention and treatment of substance abuse with adolescent populations in school and community settings.
Leanne S. Hawken, PhD, BCBA, is Professor in the Department of Special Education at the University of Utah. She is a recipient of the College of Education Research Award from the University of Utah. Her research focuses on positive behavior support, including schoolwide behavior support, targeted interventions for students at risk, and functional assessment/behavior support planning for students engaging in severe problem behavior. She frequently leads presentations and workshops on Check-In, Check-Out and positive behavior interventions and supports. In addition to over 20 book chapters and journal articles, she is coauthor of Building Positive Behavior Support Systems in Schools, Second Edition; Responding to Problem Behavior in Schools, Second Edition; and the training DVD Check-In, Check-Out, Second Edition: A Tier 2 Intervention for Students at Risk

Table of Contents

List of Figures and Tables     xi
Understanding the Context of Student Substance Use and Abuse     1
What Are Substance Use and Abuse?     2
General Definitions     2
Medically Based Terminology and Criteria     3
Research on Student Substance Use and Abuse: National Data Sources and Major Use Categories     5
Experimental Substance Use     6
Substance Abuse     8
Substance Dependence     9
Substance Use and Abuse in Specific Student Populations     10
General Student Population and School Dropouts     10
Gender Differences     10
Differences among Racial and Ethnic Groups     12
Students with and without Disabilities     14
Federal Laws and School Policies Relevant to Student Substance Abuse     16
The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act     16
Title 42 of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Part 2     17
Zero Tolerance Policies     20
Case Example     21
Chapter Summary     23
Chapter Resources     23
Development and Maintenance of Substance Abuse     25
Why Do Some Students Abuse Substances?     25
Biologically Based Theories of SubstanceAbuse     26
The Disease Model     26
Brain Chemistry     27
Genetic Factors     28
Social Learning Theory of Substance Abuse     29
Social Learning, Behavioral, and Cognitive-Behavioral Theories     29
Substance Use as a Coping Skill     29
Modeling     30
Self-Efficacy Expectations     30
Risk and Protective Factors for Student Substance Abuse     31
Ecology of Risk and Protective Factors     31
Defining Risk and Protective Factors     32
Major Categories of Risk and Protective Factors     33
Case Example     39
Chapter Summary     42
Chapter Resources     42
Knowing Drugs of Abuse and Screening for a Substance Abuse Problem     44
Major Substances of Abuse     45
Depressants     45
Stimulants     50
Opioids     51
Club Drugs     52
Marijuana     53
Inhalants     54
Screening for a Substance Abuse Problem     55
Issues of Consent and Confidentiality     56
Defining Screening and Assessment for a Substance Problem     57
Establishing a Positive Working Relationship     58
Steps in the Screening Process     60
Is Screening Necessary?     60
Conduct a Screening     62
Decide on Need for Assessment     64
Follow-Up     65
Case Example     65
Chapter Summary     67
Chapter Resources     67
Prevention Programming     69
The Three Levels of Prevention Programming     69
Principles of Drug Abuse Prevention     71
Evaluating Research-Based Prevention Programs     73
Evaluation of a Universal Prevention Program: LifeSkills Training     74
Evaluation of a Selected (or Indicated) Prevention Program: Project Towards No Drug Abuse     75
Evaluation of an Indicated Prevention Program: Reconnecting Youth     77
Evaluation of a Tiered Program: Adolescent Transitions Program     79
Summary of Research-Based Prevention Programs     81
Evaluating the Drug Abuse Resistance Education Program     81
Evaluation Studies of D.A.R.E.     82
Core Elements of D.A.R.E.     83
Why Is D.A.R.E. So Popular?     84
Planning for Implementation of a Substance Abuse Prevention Program     85
What Is the Severity of the Problem?      86
Is the School Ready to Implement a Substance Abuse Prevention Program?     88
What Are the Existing Gaps in Services for Students?     91
In What Ways Can the School Collaborate with the Local Community?     91
Case Example     91
Chapter Summary     94
Chapter Resources     94
Individual Interventions   Erin M. Ingoldsby   David Ehrman     96
Types of Individual Interventions for Substance-Using Adolescents     97
How Are Substance-Using Adolescents Currently Treated?     98
Effectiveness of Current Interventions     104
Important Questions about Individual Interventions for Students     106
What Are the Essential Components of Student Interventions?     106
When Should a School Mental Health Professional Decide to Implement an Individual Intervention Plan?     106
What Is the School Professional's Role When the Student Is Receiving Treatment from an Outside Agency?     107
A Comprehensive Early Intervention Program     110
The Basis for Our Intervention Program     112
A Brief Adolescent-Focused, School-Based Intervention for Substance Use     113
Special Issues in Intervening with Substance-Using Students     122
Case Example      124
Chapter Summary     126
Chapter Resources     127
Group Interventions     130
Types of Group Interventions     130
Psychoeducational Groups     131
Support Groups     131
Self-Help Groups     132
Therapy Groups     133
Understanding the Developmental Process of Groups     133
Initial Stage     134
Transition Stage     136
Working Stage     137
Termination Stage     137
A Note about Group Stages     138
Group Leadership Skills     138
Basic Counseling Skills     139
Modeling Desired Behaviors     142
Confrontation     142
Working with Resistant Members     143
Cultural Awareness and Competency     145
Practical Considerations of Group Work in Schools     147
Developing a Group Plan     147
Group Logistics     151
Confidentiality     154
Member Goals     156
Support from the Larger System     157
Specific Issues for Substance-Abuse-Related Groups     157
Case Example     158
Chapter Summary      160
Chapter Resources     160
Consultation and Referral   Claudia G. Vincent     163
Overview of the Key Features of the Consultation and Referral Process     164
Practical Steps for Non-School-Based Service Delivery     166
Identifying the Need for Community-Based Services     166
Gathering Critical Pieces of Information to Shape an Action Plan     170
Locating Available Resources     177
Matching Available Services with a Student's Needs     179
Putting It All Together     186
Considering Financial Responsibilities     188
Building and Maintaining a Systemic Referral Process     189
Team-Based Approach     190
Mutual Education     190
Responsiveness to Existing Policies     190
Case Example     191
Chapter Summary     193
Chapter Resources     194
References     195
Index     205


School psychologists, counselors, and social workers; middle and secondary school administrators; other professionals working with at-risk students. May serve as a text in undergraduate- and graduate-level courses dealing with substance abuse in schools and school-based prevention and intervention.

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