Integrated Energy Systems for Multigeneration looks at how measures implemented to limit greenhouse gas emissions must consider smart utilization of available limited resources and employ renewable resources through integrated energy systems and the utilization of waste energy streams. This reference considers the main concepts of thermal and conventional energy systems through detailed systems description, analyses of methodologies, performance assessment and optimization, and illustrative examples and case studies. The book examines producing power and heat with cooling, freshwater, green fuels and other useful commodities designed to tackle rising greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere.
With worldwide energy demand increasing, and the consequences of meeting supply with current dependency on fossil fuels, investigating and developing sustainable alternatives to the conventional energy systems is a growing concern for global stakeholders.
- Analyzes the links between clean energy technologies and achieving sustainable development
- Illustrates several examples of design and analysis of integrated energy systems
- Discusses performance assessment and optimization
- Uses illustrative examples and global case studies to explain methodologies and concepts
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About the Author
Ibrahim Dincer is a full professor of Mechanical Engineering at University of Ontario. Renowned for his pioneering works in the area of sustainable energy technologies he has authored/co-authored numerous books and book chapters, and many refereed journal and conference papers. He has chaired many national and international conferences, symposia, workshops and technical meetings. He has delivered many keynote and invited lectures. He is an active member of various international scientific organizations and societies, and serves as editor-in-chief, associate editor, regional editor, and editorial board member on various prestigious international journals. He is a recipient of several research, teaching and service awards, including the Premier's research excellence award in Ontario, Canada. During the past five years he has been recognized by Thomson Reuters as one of The Most Influential Scientific Minds in Engineering and one of the most highly cited researchers.Dr. Yusuf Bicer received his PhD in the area of mechanical engineering from the University of Ontario Institute of Technology in Oshawa, Canada. He completed his BS in Control Engineering (2012) and master’s degree in Energy Science and Technology (2014) at Istanbul Technical University, Turkey. Currently, Dr. Bicer is an assistant professor of sustainable development in the College of Science and Engineering at Hamad Bin Khalifa University in Doha, Qatar.
Prior to joining HBKU, he was a research and teaching assistant in the Department of Automotive, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology. His PhD thesis focused on photoelectrochemical-based hydrogen and ammonia production options. He also worked for more than two years at Istanbul Practical Gas and Energy Technologies Research Engineering Industrial Trade Inc. on the topics of natural gas and solar energy applications.
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Energy, environment and sustainable development
Sustainable development is considered a very diverse domain, covering the dimensions of energy, environment, economy, education and resources along with the social aspects. This can be simplified based on human needs for energy, water, environment, food and economy. Due to depletion or degradation of these fundamental aspects, human beings attempt to secure resources and substances, and are therefore concerned with the security of water, energy, the environment, and food. Sustainable and resilient communities require an integrated approach that accounts for all of these crucial factors. Energy plays an overarching role in water, food and environmental security for achieving sustainable development.
Water scarcity is recognized as one of the critical challenges worldwide. Hence, seawater desalination is an essential process that requires a significant amount of energy. Water security encompasses water treatment, water distribution, water quality and water required for cooling as well as many other subsystems. Although water is an abundant substance on Earth, availability of drinkable, potable, pure, clean water is a major problem, especially for the regions lacking in freshwater sources. Desert climatic regions are among the top locations suffering from limited freshwater availability and supply. Seawater is considered a significant source for desalination plants; however, these plants consume huge amounts of energy, mainly from fossil fuels. The sustainability level of thermal desalination plants is thus low. In order to address this issue, this book covers alternative desalination technologies integrated into renewable energy plants.
Food security encompasses food quality, food supply, fertilizers, food processing, food storage, irrigation and many other aspects. Those countries that are dependent on external food resources are in fact in urgent need of securing their food production and supply. Water security is one of the main concerns of food security. Therefore, these two aspects have a strong relationship and multiple interactions. Hot desert climates are short of water, causing irrigation difficulties. Therefore, humid air harvesting and on-site water production arise as alternative solutions for irrigation. Instead of relying on local production, these regions tend to import their food from external resources. As food and water are two of the fundamental requirements of mankind, their sustainable production and supply play a significant role in building resilient communities. Hence, this book covers several sustainable systems for food production and processing that are integrated into renewable energy systems.
Environmental security is concerned with preserving nature and reducing harmful emissions to acceptable levels. Energy production, conversion and consumption have a direct impact on the environment. Hence, there is a great need for environmentally friendly routes for the energy sector. Environmental security includes air quality, green-house gas emissions, the marine environment, land use, climate, vegetation, plant and animal health, as well as many other impacts related to the environment. The environment is a concern for all people and countries in the world. Increasing emissions and climate change impacts have led decision makers to implement cleaner and hence more sustainable energy systems.
The dimensions of energy are quite diverse, ranging from energy production to energy management, and cover multiple aspects related to energy fundamentals, materials, sources, generation, conversion, transmission, distribution, consumption, and management, which directly affect water, food and environmental security. Therefore, a secure supply of energy is usually accepted as a necessary but not sufficient factor for sustainable development of a society. Sustainable development requires not only a secure but also a sustainable supply of energy resources. Energy is considered the most vital part among the other sustainable development aspects, because in order to produce clean water as well as plant, harvest and process food, energy is the main requirement. Many of the environmental emissions are due to energy production and conversion, which means that emission reduction potential is a major factor in the development of sustainable energy systems. The significance of energy systems for sustainable communities is depicted in Fig. 1.1.
Sustainable growth in a civilization needs energy resources that, in the long term, are on-demand and sustainably accessible at an acceptable price and that can be used for all obligatory duties without producing negative social impacts. The supply of fossil fuels such as natural gas, oil and coal as well as uranium is normally recognized to be limited; however, other energy sources such as solar, wind and hydropower are usually evaluated as renewable and sustainable over a comparatively extensive period.
Environmental issues are major factors in sustainable development due to several reasons, in particular because actions that continuously disrupt the environment are considered non-sustainable over periods of time. The growing effects of such actions on the environment lead to various health, ecological and other problems over time.
A part of the ecological impact of a civilization is related to the operation of its energy sources. In an ideal world, a civilization seeking sustainable development would exploit simple energy resources that do not have any ecological influence. On the other hand, as all energy sources have some environmental issues, it makes more sense to reduce the associated emissions by improving the efficiency of the processes employed. In this way, some of the issues related to environmental impact can be addressed. Obviously, there is a strong relationship between energy efficiency and environmental impact. If the energy efficiency increases, eventually we consume less of the energy source for the same amount of products or services and reduce the associated pollutions. Improving energy efficiency reduces energy losses. Most productivity and efficiency enhancements offer direct environmental benefits in two ways. Initially, the energy input required by the energy system is reduced for the same output, resulting in a higher efficiency, and the released pollutants are reduced accordingly. Secondly, in view of the whole life cycle of energy resources and technologies, higher productivity results in reducing the impact on the environment over most life-cycle phases.
Various energy-related criteria considered vital in successful sustainable development in a society are listed here [1–3]:
employing exergy analysis as a potential tool
education and training on the environment and sustainable development
policy development for sustainable energy implementation
appropriate assessment, evaluation and monitoring tools
strategic energy and exergy policies for better performance
environmentally friendly policies, strategies and regulations
incentives and promotions for environmentally benign practices
exergy conservation practices, rather than energy conservation practices
efficient energy utilization practices
cleaner technologies for fossil fuels
renewable energy technologies
alternative and green fuels
hydrogen and carbon free fuels, such as ammonia
system integration for multigenerational applications
research, innovation and commercialization programs
academia-industry-government partnership programs
roadmap developments for sustainable society
artificial intelligence and machine learning tools
1.2 Energy classification
An energy resource is a form of energy existent in the world, which can be transformed into other forms of energy (e.g., mechanical, electrical, etc.). There are several types of energy resources available on Earth, namely fossil fuels, nuclear, renewables, wastes and others, as shown in Fig. 1.2.
First, we classify these energy resources and summarize their current status and potential in the world. This will help us to understand the importance of energy, environmental and sustainability relationships. Energy resource management is very important. Demand and supply of energy should be controlled and balanced. Market regulation is therefore necessary. Environmental emissions associated with any energy transformation process should be monitored. Actions to minimize pollution in the energy sector should also be taken. In this context, each jurisdiction should strive to achieve a balance between energy supply, demand and environmental effects, affecting the development of policies and strategies. Energy efficiency increase yields a decrease in energy need and then an extension of the existing reserves. In addition, utilization of energy sources in such a balanced manner leads to more stable energy consumption, which is helpful for sustainability and the environment.
Each energy-related action has a cost on efficiency, which is a key factor since cost on efficiency implies more savings or decreased expenditures for the identical amenities delivered or commodities generated. Nonetheless, cost savings and environmental contamination are related to each other, since creating real capital requires production activity, and any production activity leads to definite environmental influences. Consequently, energy security has turned into another significant aspect. Better energy security suggests advancement of energy policies and geopolitic policies, which ultimately guarantee proper access to energy resources and thus improved sustainability and environment.
In addition to renewable energy sources, other types of energy resources accessible to human beings are those resultant from fossil fuels, nuclear fuel and waste. Nonrenewable energy sources are currently the most utilized source of energy globally with about 75% of the total electricity production as depicted in Fig. 1.3. Nuclear energy has about 6% of global energy production. The number of countries utilizing nuclear energy resources is limited. Nevertheless, a vast portion of global power generation is accomplished by fossil fuel-based power plants. Hydropower is also considered under the renewable energy category, representing about 16.6% of the worldwide power production. Among other renewables, bio-power is accountable for approximately 2% of global electricity production, followed by photovoltaics and other renewables. In fact, the highest quality form of energy is electricity, as illustrated in Fig. 1.4. The quality of energy is mostly associated with the conversion efficiencies. Hence, natural gas has one of the highest qualities among conventional sources. Conversion from most of the renewable resources (except hydropower) is in the low/medium efficiency region. One of the important advantages of solar photovoltaics is the direct conversion from resource to electricity. Among renewables, biomass has one of the highest qualities due to the combustion or gasification process. It can yield high temperature combustion gases. From a quantity point of view, geothermal power plants have larger scales than other renewables due to integration into conventional power cycles such as the Rankine cycle. However, solar and wind energy systems are more modular, which makes it easier to scale-up and scale-down.
Most of the energy sources are derived from solar energy, such as hydropower, wind energy, ocean currents and waves, biomass energy, and direct solar radiation. Almost 22% of the incoming solar radiation can be recovered as hydro-energy that is in fact a type of potential energy (convertible into kinetic energy) produced due to the height of water level . Hydropower can be obtained from the natural water cycle, which is powered by solar irradiation. Solar energy causes water to vaporize from oceans and then forms into rainfall at higher heights leading to the structures of river basins and lakes. The projected worldwide electricity production potential through hydropower is the highest among other types of renewable energy sources, corresponding to about 30 PW. This number is calculated based on a 22% hydropower breakdown, assuming 80% hydraulic energy conversion.
1.2.2 Wind power
Wind energy is another type of renewable source that originates from solar radiation. Wind is a mechanical movement of air mass that is caused by pressure gradient. The difference in pressure between two different locations results from differential heating produced due to sunlight exposure. Wind energy represents only 0.21% of the input solar energy from which it originates. The available energy in wind is commonly extracted via wind turbines that have the slightly higher efficiency (compared to fossil fuel-based thermal power plants) of wind-to-power conversion. Nevertheless, due to wind fluctuations throughout the year, the capacity factor, meaning the yearly operational hours, is limited to about 30–40%. Wind power has the potential to generate electricity corresponding to approximately 0.22 PW worldwide with an average wind turbine's efficiency and capacity factor.
Biomass is mainly available from wood, plants, grass, straw, cane, manure, charcoal, domestic waste, waste paper, etc. In fact, they all represent a chemical type of energy. The heating value (HV) of biomass is commonly between 4 and 30 MJ/kg. The global total energy potential of the biomass is quite low, approximately 0.02 PW, assuming that the energy conversion efficiency is about 50%. The energy available in biomass can be extracted as thermal energy mainly by combustion. A very small fraction of sunlight (approximately 0.02%) is used for photosynthesis by the plants on Earth. The process of photosynthesis is of low efficiency, in the range of 1–5%. Note that photosynthesis occurs in the visible light region of the solar spectrum. However, due to the high formation of sucrose, glucose, cellulose and other chemical compounds, photosynthesis is a vital supply of energy and food throughout the world. The processes of photosynthesis cause production of biomass. Furthermore, biofuels can be produced from biomass. Biofuels are suitable to be used in various applications such as transportation, power generation and heating. Some types of biomass can be converted into alcohols by aerobic fermentation. Many biomass sources are suitable and could be used to produce liquid fuel by transesterification, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or other methods. Biomass, like wood, or other plants, is directly combustible. Synthetic fuels, such as biogas or liquid biofuels, can be burned for producing high-temperature thermal energy, which can drive a power cycle, e.g. Brayton cycle.
1.2.4 Solar energy
Solar energy has the second greatest capacity for electricity production among renewables, if it is assumed that conversion efficiency from solar to electricity is about 25%. In this case, the projected worldwide electricity production from solar energy can reach about 18 PW . Solar energy has several forms, such as photonic, thermal and electrical. Photonic energy can be converted into more useful types of energy such as electricity and heat. Using the photovoltaic effect, solar energy can be converted into direct electricity. Solar radiation can be transformed into thermal energy by solar collectors. There are numerous types of solar collectors. Low-temperature solar collectors can be used for water heating, absorption cooling and other similar applications. In addition, high-temperature solar collectors utilize concentrated solar irradiation and they are mainly suitable for power generation as well as industrial heat requirements.
1.2.5 Ocean energy
There are other potential energy sources such as ocean energy, which can be harnessed in different forms such as ocean thermal, ocean waves, and ocean flows. There are various types of technologies to utilize ocean energy. Ocean currents and waves can be converted into mechanical energy and then to electricity. Similarly, the temperature gradient of the ocean can be used in ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants to produce electricity by organic Rankine cycles. Several examples of ocean energy conversion systems are covered in Chapter 6.(Continues…)
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Table of Contents
1. Energy and Environment and Sustainable Development 2. Fundamentals of Energy Systems 3. System Integration for Multigeneration 4. Integration of Conventional Systems for Multigeneration 5. Integration of Nuclear Power Systems for Multigeneration 6. Integration of Renewable Energy Systems for Multigeneration 7. Enhanced Dimensions of Integrated Systems for Environment and Sustainability