Male Sterility in Higher Plants

Male Sterility in Higher Plants

by Mohan L.H. Kaul

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1988)

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Overview

" . . . . . . Nature has something more in view than that its own proper males should fecundate each blossom. " Andrew Knight Philosophical Transactions, 1799 Sterility implicating the male sex solely presents a paradoxical situation in which universality and uniqueness are harmoniously blended. It maintains a built-in outbreeding system but is not an isolating mechanism, as male steriles, the "self-emasculated" plants, outcross with their male fertile sibs normally. Both genes (nuclear and cytoplasmic) and environment, individually as well as conjointly, induce male sterility, the former being genetic and the latter nongenetic. Genetic male sterility is controlled either exclusively by nuclear genes (ms) or by the complementary action of nuclear (lr) and cytoplasmic (c) genes. The former is termed genic and the latter gene-cytoplasmic male sterility. Whereas genic male sterility exhibits Mendelian inheritance, gene-cytoplasmic male sterility is non-Mendelian, with specific transmissibility of the maternal cytoplasm type. Genetic male sterility is documented in 617 species and species crosses com­ prising 320 species, 162 genera and 43 families. Of these, genic male sterility occurs in 216 species and 17 species crosses and gene-cytoplasmic male sterility in 16 species and 271 species crosses. The Predominance of species exhibiting genic male sterility and of species crosses exhibiting gene-cytoplasmic male sterility is due to the fact that for the male sterility expression in the former, mutation of nuclear genes is required, but in the latter, mutations of both nuclear and cytoplasmic genes are necessary.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783642831416
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date: 02/12/2012
Series: Monographs on Theoretical and Applied Genetics , #10
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1988
Pages: 1005
Product dimensions: 6.69(w) x 9.53(h) x 0.08(d)

Table of Contents

I General Account.- 1 Introduction.- 1.1 Discovery.- 1.2 Occurrence.- 1.3 Virtues.- 1.4 Initial Reviews.- 1.5 Definition and Concept.- 1.6 Classification.- 1.7 Genetic Types.- 1.8 Symbols Proffered and Abbreviations Used.- 2 Genic Male Sterility.- 2.1 Occurrence and Perpetuation.- 2.2 Mutagen-Induced.- 2.3 Chromosome Loss or Addition.- 2.4 Gene Control.- 2.5 Types.- 2.6 Gene Action.- 2.7 Tapetal Form and Function.- 2.8 Environmental Influence.- 2.9 Identification and Genetic Characterisation.- 2.10 Breeding Value.- 2.11 Development and Utilization.- 2.12 Maintenance and Perpetuation.- 2.13 Contrivances to Usage.- 2.14 Use in Breeding.- 3 Gene-Cytoplasmic Male Sterility.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Occurrence.- 3.3 Types.- 3.4 Gene Control.- 3.5 Gene Action.- 3.6 Tapetum.- 3.7 Environmental Influence.- 3.8 Sterile Cytoplasm Features.- 3.9 Fertility Restoration.- 3.10 Breeding Value.- 4 Chemical Male Sterility.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Chemical Gameides.- 4.3 Induced Sterility.- 4.4 Male Gameides.- 5 Biochemistry.- 5.1 Amino Acids.- 5.2 Nucleic Acid Starvation.- 5.3 Carbohydrate — Protein Metabolism.- 5.4 Cytokinin Content.- 5.5 Enzyme Activity.- 5.6 Enzyme Differences.- 5.7 Micronutrient Deficiency.- 5.8 Chlorophyll Content.- 5.9 Biochemical Causes and Consequences.- 6 Graft Transfer and Viral Nature.- 6.1 Transfer Across Grafts.- 6.2 Viral Transmission.- 6.3 Fungal and Insect Infestations.- 7 Molecular Basis.- 7.1 c-Gene Location.- 7.2 Mihondrial Site.- 7.3 Plasmid Role.- 7.4 Chloroplast Site.- 8 Origin and Causes.- 8.1 Origin.- 8.2 Proposed Causes.- 8.3 Conclusions.- 9 Major Features.- 9.1 General Attributes.- 9.2 Special Attributes.- 10 Gynodioecy.- 10.1 Genetic Control.- 10.2 Occurrence and Frequency.- 10.3 Sex Expression.- 10.4 Floral Size Differences.- 10.5 Maintenance.- 10.6 Conclusions.- 11 Utility, Limitations and Lacunae.- 11.1 Utility.- 11.2 Concluding Remarks.- 11.3 Limitations.- 11.4 Lacunae.- II Flowering Families.- 12 Anacardiaceae.- 12.1 Anacardium occidentale.- 12.2 Mangifera indica.- 12.3 Pistacia vera.- 12.4 Rhus.- 13 Begoniaceae.- 13.1 Begonia semperflorens.- 14 Cannaceae.- 14.1 Carina glauca.- 15 Cannabinaceae.- 15.1 Cannabis sativa.- 15.2 Humulus lupulus.- 16 Caricaceae.- 16.1 Carica papaya.- 17 Caryophyllaceae.- 17.1 Dianthus.- 17.2 Silene.- 18 Chenopodiaceae.- 18.1 Beta.- 18.2 Chenopodium quinoa Wild (quinea).- 18.3 Spinacea deracea L. (Spinach).- 19 Compositae.- 19.1 Ageratum.- 19.2 Carthamus tinctorius.- 19.3 Centaurea.- 19.4 Chrysanthemum.- 19.5 Cirsium.- 19.6 Helianthus annuus.- 19.7 Lactuca.- 19.8 Parthenium.- 19.9 Tagetes erecta.- 19.10 Taraxacum.- 19.11 Zinnia elegans.- 20 Cruciferae.- 20.1 Arabidopsis thaliana.- 20.2 Brassica.- 20.3 Cheiranthus cheiri.- 20.4 Dauern carota.- 20.5 Erucasativa.- 20.6 Raphanus sativus.- 21 Cucurbitaceae.- 21.1 Bryonia.- 21.2 Citrullus vulgaris.- 21.3 Cucumis.- 21.4 Cucurbita.- 22 Ericaceae.- 22.1 Vaccinium angustifolium.- 23 Euphorbiaceae.- 23.1 Hevea brasiliensis.- 23.2 Manihot esculenta.- 23.3 Mercurialis.- 23.4 Ricinus communis.- 24 Fagaceae.- 24.1 Castanea.- 25 Geraniaceae.- 25.1 Geranium.- 25.2 Pelargonium.- 26 Gesneriaceae.- 26.1 Kohleria.- 26.2 Streparpus.- 27 Gramineae.- 27.1 Aegilops.- 27.2 Agroelymus turneri.- 27.3 Alopecurus myosuroides.- 27.4 Avena.- 27.5 Chionachne koenigii.- 27.6 Dactylis glomerata.- 27.7 Echinocloa coione.- 27.8 Eleusine.- 27.9 Festuca arundinacea.- 27.10 Hör deum vulgare.- 27.11 Lolium.- 27.12 Oryza saliva.- 27.13 Pennisetum typhoides.- 27.14 Phleum.- 27.15 Saccharum.- 27.16 Secale cereale.- 27.17 Sorghum vulgare.- 27.18 Tragopogon.- 27.19 Tripsacumlaxum.- 27.20 Triticum.- 27.21 Zea mays.- 28 Iridaceae.- 28.1 Iris.- 29 Labiatae.- 29.1 Coleus.- 29.2 Lavandula angustifolia.- 29.3 Origanum.- 29.4 Salvia.- 29.5 Saturejahortensis.- 30 Leguminosae.- 30.1 Arachis hypogaea.- 30.2 Cajanuscajan.- 30.3 Crotalaria.- 30.4 Desmodiumsandwicense.- 30.5 Glycine max.- 30.6 Lathyrus.- 30.7 Lens culinaris.- 30.8 Lotus filicaulis.- 30.9 Lupinus.- 30.10 Medicago sativa.- 30.11 Melilotus alba.- 30.12 Phaseolus.- 30.13 Pisum.- 30.14 Trifolium.- 30.15 Viciafaba.- 30.16 Vigna.- 30.17 Wisteria.- 31 Liliaceae.- 31.1 Allium.- 31.2 Kniphofia.- 32 Limanthaceae.- 32.1 Limnanthes douglasii.- 33 Linaceae.- 33.1 Linumusitatissimum.- 34 Malvaceae.- 34.1 Abelmoschus.- 34.2 Gossypium.- 34.3 Thespesia populnea.- 35 Moraceae.- 35.1 Ficus.- 35.2 Morus nigra.- 36 Myrsinaceae.- 36.1 Rapaneathwaitesii.- 37 Oleaceae.- 37.1 Oleaeuropea.- 37.2 Jasminumpubescens.- 38 Onagraceae.- 38.1 Epilobium.- 38.2 Godetia whitneyi.- 38.3 Oenothera.- 39 Papavaraceae.- 39.1 Argemone mexicana.- 39.2 Papaver somniferum.- 40 Pedaliaceae.- 40.1 Sesamumindicum.- 41 Plantaginaceae.- 41.1 Plantago.- 42 Polemoniaceae.- 42.1 Gilia.- 42.2 Polemonium caeruleum.- 43 Polygonaceae.- 43.1 Fagopyrumesculentum.- 43.2 Rumexacetosa.- 44 Primulaceae.- 44.1 Cyclamenpersicum.- 44.2 Primula.- 45 Ranunculaceae.- 45.1 Aquilegia.- 45.2 Ranunculus.- 46 Rosaceae.- 46.1 Fragaria.- 46.2 Malus sylvestris.- 47 Rutaceae.- 47.1 Citrus.- 48 Scrophulariaceae.- 48.1 Antirrhinum majus.- 48.2 Hebe.- 48.3 Veronica.- 49 Solanaceae.- 49.1 Capsicum annuum.- 49.2 Datura strmonium.- 49.3 Lycopersicon esculentum.- 49.4 Nicotiana.- 49.5 Petunia.- 49.6 Solanum.- 50 Tiliaceae.- 50.1 Corchorus capsularis.- 51 Urticaceae.- 51.1 Pileamicrophylla.- 52 Valerianaceae.- 52.1 Centranthus ruber.- 52.2 Valeriana officinalis.- 53 Violaceae.- 53.1 Viola.- 54 Vitaceae.- 54.1 Vitis.- 55 Concepts and Conclusions.- 55.1 Concepts.- 55.2 Conclusions.- 55.3 Recommendations.- References.

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