Pub. Date:
Elsevier Science & Technology Books


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Metal foams are at the forefront of technological development for the automotive, aerospace, and other weight-dependent industries. They are formed by various methods, but the key facet of their manufacture is the inclusion of air or other gaseous pockets in the metal structure.

The fact that gas pockets are present in their structure provides an obvious weight advantage over traditionally cast or machined solid metal components. The unique structure of metal foams also opens up more opportunities to improve on more complex methods of producing parts with space inclusions such as sand-casting. This guide provides information on the advantages metal foams possess, and the applications for which they may prove suitable.

Offers a concise description of metal foams, their manufacture, and their advantages in industry Provides engineers with answers to pertinent questions surrounding metal foams Satisfies a major need in the market for information on the properties, performance, and applications of these materials

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780750672191
Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology Books
Publication date: 06/01/2000
Pages: 266
Product dimensions: 0.63(w) x 6.14(h) x 9.21(d)

Table of Contents

Preface and acknowledgementsix
List of contributorsxi
Table of physical constants and conversion unitsxiii
1.1This Design Guide1
1.2Potential applications for metal foams3
1.3The literature on metal foams5
2Making metal foams6
2.1Making metal foams6
2.2Melt gas injection (air bubbling)8
2.3Gas-releasing particle decomposition in the melt9
2.4Gas-releasing particle decomposition in semi-solids11
2.5Casting using a polymer or wax precursor as template11
2.6Metal decomposition on cellular preforms14
2.7Entrapped gas expansion14
2.8Hollow sphere structures16
2.9Co-compaction or casting of two materials, one leachable19
2.10Gas-metal eutectic solidification20
2.11Literature on the manufacture of metal foams20
3Characterization methods24
3.1Structural characterization24
3.2Surface preparation and sample size26
3.3Uniaxial compression testing27
3.4Uniaxial tension testing29
3.5Shear testing30
3.6Multi-axial testing of metal foams31
3.7Fatigue testing34
3.8Creep testing35
3.9Indentation and hardness testing35
3.10Surface strain mapping36
3.11Literature on testing of metal foams38
4Properties of metal foams40
4.1Foam structure40
4.2Foam properties: an overview42
4.3Foam property charts48
4.4Scaling relations52
5Design analysis for material selection55
5.2Formulating a property profile56
5.3Two examples of single-objective optimization58
5.4Where might metal foams excel?61
6Design formulae for simple structures62
6.1Constitutive equations for mechanical response62
6.2Moments of sections64
6.3Elastic deflection of beams and panels67
6.4Failure of beams and panels69
6.5Buckling of columns, panels and shells70
6.6Torsion of shafts72
6.7Contact stresses74
6.8Vibrating beams, tubes and disks76
7A constitutive model for metal foams80
7.1Review of yield behavior of fully dense metals80
7.2Yield behavior of metallic foams82
8Design for fatigue with metal foams88
8.1Definition of fatigue terms88
8.2Fatigue phenomena in metal foams90
8.3S-N data for metal foams94
8.4Notch sensitivity in static and fatigue loading97
9Design for creep with metal foams103
9.1Introduction: the creep of solid metals103
9.2Creep of metallic foams105
9.3Models for the steady-state creep of foams106
9.4Creep data for metallic foams107
9.5Creep under multi-axial stresses109
9.6Creep of sandwich beams with metal foam cores109
10Sandwich structures113
10.1The stiffness of sandwich beams113
10.2The strength of sandwich beams116
10.3Collapse mechanism maps for sandwich panels120
10.4Case study: the three-point bending of a sandwich panel123
10.5Weight-efficient structures124
10.6Illustration for uniformly loaded panel126
10.7Stiffness-limited designs133
10.8Strength-limited designs140
10.9Recommendations for sandwich design148
11Energy management: packaging and blast protection150
11.1Introduction: packaging150
11.2Selecting foams for packaging151
11.3Comparison of metal foams with tubular energy absorbers157
11.4Effect of strain rate on plateau stress161
11.5Propagation of shock waves in metal foams163
11.6Blast and projectile protection166
12Sound absorption and vibration suppression171
12.1Background: sound absorption in structural materials171
12.2Sound absorption in metal foams173
12.3Suppression of vibration and resonance175
13Thermal management and heat transfer181
13.2Heat transfer coefficient182
13.3Heat fluxes184
13.4Pressure drop186
13.5Trade-off between heat transfer and pressure drop187
14Electrical properties of metal foams189
14.1Measuring electrical conductivity or resistivity189
14.2Data for electrical resistivity of metal foams190
14.3Electrical conductivity and relative density191
15Cutting, finishing and joining194
15.1Cutting of metal foams194
15.2Finishing of metal foams194
15.3Joining of metal foams195
16Cost estimation and viability200
16.1Introduction: viability200
16.2Technical modeling and performance metrics201
16.3Cost modeling202
16.4Value modeling206
17Case studies217
17.1Aluminum foam car body structures217
17.2Integrally molded foam parts219
17.3Motorway sound insulation220
17.4Optical systems for space applications222
17.5Fluid-fluid heat exchangers224
17.6Lightweight conformal pressure tanks225
17.7Electrodes for batteries225
17.8Integrated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) for motor drives226
17.9Applications under consideration232
18Suppliers of metal foams234
19Web sites239
AppendixCatalogue of material indices242

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