"Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution" is a 1902 collection of essays by Russian naturalist and anarchist philosopher Peter Kropotkin. Originally published in "The Nineteenth Century" from 1890 to 1896, the essays examine mutually-beneficial cooperation and reciprocity in both animal and human societies. Contents include: "Mutual Aid Among Animals", "Mutual Aid Among Animals (continued)", "Mutual Aid Among Savages", "Mutual Aid Among The Barbarians", "Mutual Aid In The Mediaeval City", "Mutual Aid In The Mediaeval City (continued)", etc. Pyotr Alexeyevich Kropotkin (1842-1921) was a Russian writer, activist, revolutionary, economist, scientist, sociologist, essayist, historian, researcher, political scientist, geographer, geographer, biologist, philosopher and advocate of anarcho-communism. He was a prolific writer, producing a large number of pamphlets and articles, the most notable being "The Conquest of Bread and Fields, Factories and Workshops" and "Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution". This classic work is being republished now in a new edition complete with an excerpt from "Comrade Kropotkin" by Victor Robinson.