Congratulations to Cris Tovani, recipient of ILA's Adolescent Literacy Thought Leader Award 2017!
The truth is, when we rely on lecture in an effort to cover content, we're doing students a disservice. Although lecture can be engaging and even useful, lecture alone cannot give kids real opportunities to learn, retain, and transfer the disciplinary ideas, skills, and practices we're trying to teach.
Cris Tovani and Elizabeth Moje help us translate the time spent lecturing into powerful learning experiences where students interact and inquire into topics that matter. Their research-based alternatives help you create the conditions for engaging, relevant work that's inherently interesting and sparks critical thinking.
Elizabeth Moje helps us understand the latest research on how people learn, and shows powerful evidence that teachers can increase student learning with more purposeful student participation. Veteran teacher and instructional coach Cris Tovani provides a practical model for instruction that's backed by the current research and puts student engagement at the center of your teaching. Her examples of problem-based learning activities include connections to national standards and topics that matter outside the classroom walls. Together, Elizabeth and Cris make a convincing argument that when we minimize teaching-as-telling and transition to planning for kids to do the work, student engagement soars-and so does learning.
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About the Author
Recipient of ILA's Adolescent Literacy Thought Leader Award in 2017, Cris Tovani is a veteran teacher, staff developer, and nationally known consultant on issues of reading, content comprehension and assessment in secondary classrooms. She is the author of I Read It But I Don't Get It, Do I Really Have to Teach Reading? and So, What do They Really Know? Cris Tovani is coauthor with Samantha Bennett of the Heinemann Digital Campus course Adolescent Reading RX, which shows a variety of ways to reach reluctant and struggling readers.
Ellin Oliver Keene has been a classroom teacher, staff developer, non-profit director, and adjunct professor of reading and writing. For sixteen years she directed staff development initiatives at the Denver-based Public Education & Business Coalition. She served as Deputy Director and Director of Literacy and Staff Development for the Cornerstone Project at the University of Pennsylvania for four years. Ellin works with schools and districts throughout the country and abroad with an emphasis on long-term, school-based professional development and strategic planning for literacy learning. She serves as senior advisor at Heinemann, overseeing the Heinemann Fellows initiative and is the editor of the Heinemann Professional Development Catalog-Journal. Ellin is author of Engaging Children: Igniting a Drive for Deeper Learning (2018), is co-editor and co-author of The Teacher You Want to Be: Essays about Children, Learning, and Teaching (Heinemann, 2015); co-editor of the Not This, but That series (Heinemann, 2013 - 2015); author of Talk About Understanding: Rethinking Classroom Talk to Enhance Understanding (Heinemann, 2012), To Understand: New Horizons in Reading Comprehension (Heinemann, 2008), co-author of Comprehension Going Forward (Heinemann, 2011), Mosaic of Thought: The Power of Comprehension Strategy Instruction, 2nd edition (Heinemann, 2007, 1st edition, 1997) and author of Assessing Comprehension Thinking Strategies (Shell Educational Books, 2006) as well as numerous chapters for professional books and journals on the teaching of reading as well as education policy journals. Ellin is a Heinemann PD provider, presenting One-Day Workshops, Webinars Series, and all forms of On-Site PD. She is most sought after for her long-term professional development residencies in partnership with Heinemann Professional Development. Click here for an overview of the Keene Residency. Listen to Ellin and Tom Newkirk reflect on the 20th anniversary of Mosaic of Thought on The Heinemann Podcast. Follow Ellin on Twitter @EllinKeene.
Elizabeth Birr Moje serves as dean of the School of Education, and is the George Herbert Mead Collegiate Professor of Education, and an Arthur F. Thurnau Professor in the School of Education at the University of Michigan. She is also a faculty associate in the Institute for Social Research and in the Latino/a Studies program.
Nell K. Duke, Ed.D., is a professor of language, literacy, and culture and faculty associate in the combined program in education and psychology at the University of Michigan. Duke received her Bachelor's degree from Swarthmore College and her Masters and Doctoral degrees from Harvard University. Duke's work focuses on early literacy development, particularly among children living in poverty. Her specific areas of expertise include development of informational reading and writing in young children, comprehension development and instruction in early schooling, and issues of equity in literacy education. She currently serves as Co-Principal Investigator on projects funded by the Institute of Education Sciences, the National Science Foundation, and the Spencer Foundation. Duke is the recipient of the American Educational Research Association Early Career Award, the Literacy Research Association Early Career Achievement Award, the International Reading Association Dina Feitelson Research Award, the National Council of Teachers of English Promising Researcher Award, and the International Reading Association Outstanding Dissertation Award. Nell is author and co-author of numerous journal articles and book chapters as well as the books Reading and Writing Informational Text in the Primary Grades: Research-Based Practices; Literacy and the Youngest Learner: Best Practices for Educators of Children from Birth to Five; Beyond Bedtime Stories: A Parent's Guide to Promoting Reading, Writing, and Other Literacy Skills From Birth to 5; and her most recent book, Reading and Writing Genre with Purpose in K - 8 Classrooms. She is also editor of The Research-Informed Classroom book series, co-editor with Ellin Keene of the Not This But That book series, and co-editor of the book Literacy Research Methodologies. Duke teaches preservice, inservice and doctoral courses in literacy education, speaks and consults widely on literacy education, and is an active member of several literacy-related organizations. She has served as author and consultant on a number of educational programs, including Buzz About IT, iOpeners, National Geographic Science K-2 and the DLM Express. Duke also has a strong interest in improving the quality of educational research training in the U.S. Nell is currently overseeing IRA's Literacy Research Panel blog, which you can follow here: http://www.reading.org/general/Publications/blog/LRP
Table of Contents
Introduction Ellin Oliver Keene vii
Section 1 Not this: A Lecture-Only Approach Doesn't Ensure Learning Cris Tovani 1
Lecturing: A Dirty Word? 3
"But Lecturing Worked for Me" 4
Could We Limit Our Use of Lecture? 6
Who Is Doing The Work? 8
Section 2 Why not? What Works?: People Learn Best Through Multiple Modes Elizabeth Moje 12
What Does the Research Say About Lecture-Only Teaching? 18
How People Learn New Information, Ideas, and Perspectives 21
Is There No Place for Lecture in Subject-Matter Learning? 27
Research on Lecture in College and University Classrooms 28
Research on Lecture Conducted in Middle and High School Settings 31
Conclusions and Implications of Research on Lectures Versus Other Teaching Approaches 34
Research on How People Learn Literacy in Secondary Schools 36
Working with Students' Know/edge 36
Providing Opportunities for Practice 37
Engaging and Motivating 38
Navigating Many and Varied Contexts 39
How Contexts Shape What Teachers Can Do 41
Structural Features 42
Conclusions and Implications 43
Section 3 But that: Planning for Student Engagement Cris Tovani 45
"What Can I Do Instead of Lecture?" 45
Behavioral Engagement: How Learners Function 46
Emotional Engagement: Their Hearts Need to Be in It 47
Cognitive Engagement: The Need to Learn 55
A Model for Generating Student Engagement 57
Opening: Sharing Learning Targets So Kids Know Where They're Headed 60
Minilessons/Microlectures: Helping Students Meet the Targets 66
Work Sessions/Conferences: The Heart of the Student Engagement Mode! 67
Catch and Release. Refocusing and Reteaching 69
Debriefing: Questioning and Reflecting 70
Evaluating the Use of instructional Time 70
Problem-Based Learning: Daily Work Matters 75
Problem-Based Learning in the English Language Arts 81
Problem-Based Learning Guidelines 86
The Marriage of Long-Term and Daily Planning 87
Afterword Nell K. Duke 91