Nobel Prizes And Nature'S Surprises

Nobel Prizes And Nature'S Surprises

by Erling Norrby


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Each year the Nobel Prizes in the natural sciences reveal amazing discoveries. New milestones in the relentless advance of science are identified. The growth of knowledge and its evolution can be researched in the Nobel archives where nominations are kept secret for 50 years after the awards have been made. They represent a treasure for real-time assessment of science. Norrby's earlier book, Nobel Prizes and Life Sciences (2010) examined the unique archival records until 1959.The present book takes us up to 1962, surveying a range of dazzling discoveries. All prizes in immunology are reviewed. Their impact on our capacity to control infectious diseases and transplant organs are highlighted. The Nobel year 1962 is exceptional in recognizing the most major advance in biology since Darwin in 1859 presented his theory of evolution. This was the dramatic discovery of the double-helix structure of DNA by Watson and Crick in 1953. The era of molecular biology had begun. Its explosive development continues into the present.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9789814520997
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company, Incorporated
Publication date: 10/10/2013
Pages: 472
Product dimensions: 6.40(w) x 9.60(h) x 1.30(d)

Table of Contents

Preface v

Chapter 1 A Magician of Virology from Australia 1

The Shaping of a Biologist 2

Virus as an Organism 9

Phages and Receptors 11

Poliovirus 13

The Embryonated Hen's Egg 14

Pioneering Studies of Influenza Virus 16

Viruses Can Persist in Man 20

The Sherlock Holmes of Epidemiology 21

The Evaluations by Nobel Committees 25

Early Steps Towards Virus Chemoprophylaxis 26

Influenza Virus Grown in Eggs 28

Q Fever 28

Hemagglutination 29

The Weakening Candidacy 31

The Continued Studies of Receptors 32

The Golden Age of Virology and the Changing Science 34

Chapter 2 A Divided Nobel Prize and a New Era in Immunology 39

The Early Nobel Prizes in Immunology 40

From Virology to Immunology 46

Self and Non-self 46

Twin Calves 47

Instruction versus Selection 49

Clonal Selection 52

It Takes Two to Tango 54

A Multicultural Background 54

The Appeal of Oxford 55

Tissue Rejection Is an Immune Reaction 58

A Visit to Stockholm 59

Inbred Mice 60

Tolerance Unraveled 61

A Graft Can React Against the Host 64

The Nobel Committee Reviews the Discovery of Immunological Tolerance 64

A Bacteriologist Reviews Immunology 64

A Discovery Worthy of a Prize 67

Nominations in 1960 69

Sven Gard's Busy Summer 71

The Support for a Prize Amplified 73

Harmony but Breach of Consensus 76

The Nobel Events in 1960 77

The Post-Prize Engagements of Burnet and Medawar - Two Exceptional Statesmen of Science 82

Burnet, the Dystopian Visionary 83

Medawar - The Years of Hubris and the Rich Aftermath 86

Chapter 3 More Nobel Prizes in Immunology 89

The Origin of Lymphocytes Engaged in Immune Responses 90

The Lack of Recognition of the Discoveries of B and T Cells by a Nobel Prize 96

The Basic Structure of an Antibody 98

One Cell - One Antibody 103

One Antigen Selects a Swarm of Antibodies 107

The Richness of Antibodies Is Created by a Lottery System 110

Antibodies Cannot Penetrate into Cells 112

The Nobel Assembly and an Influential Secretary 113

An Embarrassed Newly Appointed Secretary 115

The Delayed Nobel Prize 117

The Cell-Bound Immunity Has an Unexpected Restriction 119

Innate Immunity Finally Recognized Again 122

Signalling Without Direct Cell Contacts 124

Chapter 4 Immunity, Infections and Transplantations 127

Inherited and Acquired Immune Defects 128

Personal Experiences of Major Health Challenges and Engagement in Research 130

The Evolutionary Interplay of Viruses and Their Hosts 132

General Remarks 133

Acute Virus Infections 134

Certain Viruses Can Evade an Immune Response 138

Persistent Virus Infections 140

The Eradication of a Virus Disease and a Virus Species 146

The Development in Tissue Transplantations in Humans 150

Transplantation of Solid Organs 151

Transplantation of Bone Marrow 153

A Committed Female Scientist 155

Complications of Medically Induced Immune Suppression 158

A Management of Bereavement 159

Chapter 5 Transgressing Borders in Science and Scenes of Life 161

The Assimilated Jew and the Budding Scientist 162

Rutherford's Laboratory 165

The Turmoil of the First World War 168

The First Stay with Bohr - The Hafnium Years 170

The Deliberations by the Nobel Committee on the Discovery of Hafnium 178

The Age of the Earth and the Rare Earth Elements 182

Years of Interlude in Freiburg 185

Return to Copenhagen - The Indicator Method Comes of Age 188

The Evaluation of the Indicator Method by the Nobel Committee 193

The Shadow of the Second World War 195

A Final Home Country 198

The Nobel Prize 203

Modern Tracer Techniques in Biology, Medicine and Archaeology 211

Life after the Nobel Prize 216

Chapter 6 Making Sense of Hearing 221

The Early Years of Studies 222

The Inner Ear Is So Beautiful that I Must Study It 224

The Swedish Connection 228

A Discovery that Caught the Ear of the Nobel Committee 231

The Decisive Year of 1961 236

The Prize Ceremony 238

A Different Kind of Nobel Lecture 241

A Meeting of Minds 243

Our Senses and Nobel Prizes 248

A Final Home in Hawaii; East Meets West 251

A Gracious Will 253

Chapter 7 Unraveling the Complexity of Protein Folding 257

The Great Sage 260

The Birth of a New Branch of Science 261

The Lady of Crystals 263

A Scientist Obsessed by Hemoglobin 265

Enter Kendrew 269

The Genius of Chemistry 271

Critical Turning Points in the Understanding of the Structure of Hemoglobin 273

Understanding the Structure of Myoglobin 276

The Delayed Nobel Prize to Hodgkin 277

Protein Crystallography Comes of Age 288

Towards the Finish Line 294

Life after the Nobel Prize 299

A Female Scientist and Humanist 299

A Great Science Administrator 300

A Scientist with Wide-Ranging Involvements 301

Chapter 8 "It's So Beautiful, You See, So Beautiful!" 307

The Great DNA Discovery 308

Biophysics at King's College 308

Watson's Arrival Upsets a Gentlemen's Agreement 311

The Rapid Developments of February 1953 315

Visitors Were Impressed 318

Time to Publish 319

The Role of Nucleic Acids Finally Appreciated 323

Amino Acid Changes Caused by Mutations May Lead to Disease 325

A Biochemist with a Particular Influence on the Nobel Work 326

Infectious Virus Nucleic Acid 327

Bragg Makes Strategic Nominations 332

The Review by a Crystallographer 333

The History of Crystallographic Studies of DNA 334

A Detour into the World of Virus Structures 336

Back to the Double Helix 337

Pauling Reflects on Nominations for the Discovery of the Structure of DNA 338

The Temperature Rises and a Powerful Nomination 339

Tiselius' Final Analysis 343

The Karolinska Institute - A Slow Starter that Won the Trophy 346

The First Review of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA 347

The Critical Year 351

Honest Jim and the Double Helix 352

The Short Life of a Devoted Scientist 353

The Background 354

Paris - Good Science and Good Life 355

From Coal to DNA 355

She Came So Close 357

The Attraction of Virus Structures 360

International Contacts 362

The Tragic End 366

Classification of Viruses 367

Wilkins or Franklin? 370

Crick and Klug Discuss Franklin's Qualifications as a Scientist 375

Three or Two? 377

Days of Festivities in December 1962 379

The Tallest Beacon among Molecular Biologists 382

Living for 60 Years with the Golden Helix 386

The Third Man Remained the Third Man 389

Franklin's Posthumous Recognition 389

What Is a Gene? 390

Chapter 9 Coda 395

Paradigmatic Discoveries 396

Genius Is a Fire that Lights Itself 400

The Importance of Lifestyle 405

The Driving Force in the Pursuit of Science 409

Internalism and Externalism 412

Science and Politics 414

Seeds and Deeds 416

References 421

Index 433

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