Offshore Wind Turbines: Reliability, availability and Maintenance

Offshore Wind Turbines: Reliability, availability and Maintenance

by Peter Tavner

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Overview

The development of offshore wind power has become a pressing modern energy issue in which the UK is taking a major part, driven by the need to find new electrical power sources, avoiding the use of fossil fuels, in the knowledge of the extensive wind resource available around our islands and the fact that the environmental impact of offshore wind farms is likely to be low.

However, there are major problems to solve if offshore wind power is to be realised and these problems revolve around the need to capture energy at a cost per kWh which is competitive with other sources. This depends upon the longevity of the wind turbines which make up offshore wind farms. Their availability, reliability and the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the maintenance needed to achieve that availability, are essential to improve offshore wind life-cycle costs and the future of this emerging industry.

This book intends to address these issues head-on and demonstrate clearly to manufacturers, developers and operators the facts and figures of wind turbine operation and maintenance in the inclement offshore environment, recommending how maintenance should be done to achieve low life-cycle costs.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781849192293
Publisher: Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET)
Publication date: 03/15/2012
Series: Energy Engineering Series , #13
Pages: 296
Product dimensions: 6.14(w) x 9.21(h) x (d)

About the Author

Peter Tavner is Emeritus Professor of New and Renewable Energy at the School of Engineering and Computing Sciences at Durham University. He has received an MA from Cambridge (1969), a PhD from Southampton (1978) and a DSc from Durham (2012) Universities. He has held senior positions in the manufacturing industry, including Group Technical Director of FKI Energy Technology, an international business manufacturing wind turbines, electrical machines and drives in Europe. He has also been Principal Investigator of the EPSRC Supergen Wind Consortium and Sino-British Future Renewable Energy Network Systems (FRENS) Consortium. He is a Fellow of the Institution of Engineering and Technology, President of the European Academy of Wind Energy and a Non-Executive Director of Wind Technologies, a Cambridge University spin-out company. He is a winner of the Institution Premium of the IET.

Table of Contents

Preface xiv

Acknowledgements xvi

Nomenclature xvii

List of abbreviations xix

1 Overview of offshore wind development 1

1.1 Development of wind power 1

1.2 Large wind farms 4

1.3 First offshore developments 6

1.4 Offshore wind in Northern Europe 7

1.4.1 Overview 7

1.4.2 Baltic Sea 8

1.4.3 UK waters 8

1.5 Offshore wind rest of the world 12

1.5.1 The United States 12

1.5.2 Asia 12

1.6 Offshore wind power terminology and economics 12

1.6.1 Terminology 12

1.6.2 Cost of installation 15

1.6.3 Cost of energy 16

1.6.4 O&M costs 18

1.6.5 Effect of reliability, availability and maintenance on cost of energy 20

1.6.6 Previous work 20

1.7 Roles 20

1.7.1 General 20

1.7.2 Regulator 20

1.7.3 Investors 20

1.7.4 Certifiers and insurers 21

1.7.5 Developers 21

1.7.6 Original equipment manufacturers 21

1.7.7 Operators and asset managers 22

1.7.8 Maintainers 22

1.8 Summary 23

1.9 References 23

2 Reliability theory relevant to offshore wind turbines 25

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 Basic definitions 25

2.3 Random and continuous variables 26

2.4 Reliability theory 28

2.4.1 Reliability functions 28

2.4.2 Reliability functions example 29

2.4.3 Reliability analysis assuming constant failure rate 30

2.4.4 Point processes 32

2.4.5 Non-homogeneous Poisson process 33

2.4.6 Power law process 34

2.4.7 Total time on test 34

2.5 Reliability block diagrams 36

2.5.1 General 36

2.5.2 Series systems 36

2.5.3 Parallel systems 37

2.6 Summary 38

2.7 References 38

3 Practical wind turbine reliability 39

3.1 Introduction 39

3.2 Typical wind turbine structure showing main assemblies 40

3.3 Reliability data collection 40

3.4 Wind turbine taxonomies 41

3.5 Failure location, failure mode, root cause and failure mechanism 41

3.6 Reliability field data 42

3.7 Comparative analysis of that data 43

3.8 Current reliability knowledge 46

3.9 Current failure mode knowledge 47

3.10 Linkage between failure mode and root cause 47

3.11 Summary 49

3.12 References 50

4 Effects of wind turbine configuration on reliability 51

4.1 Modern wind turbine configurations 51

4.2 WT configuration taxonomy 52

4.2.1 General 52

4.2.2 Concepts and configurations 54

4.2.3 Sub-assemblies 55

4.2.4 Populations and operating experience 55

4.2.5 Industrial reliability data for sub-assemblies 56

4.3 Reliability analysis assuming constant failure rate 56

4.4 Analysis of turbine concepts 59

4.4.1 Comparison of concepts 59

4.4.2 Reliability of sub-assemblies 59

4.4.2.1 General 59

4.4.2.2 Generators 60

4.4.2.3 Gearboxes 63

4.4.2.4 Converters 63

4.5 Evaluation of current different WT configurations 68

4.6 Innovative WT configurations 70

4.7 Summary 71

4.8 References 72

5 Design and testing for wind turbine availability 75

5.1 Introduction 75

5.2 Methods to improve reliability 75

5.2.1 Reliability results and future turbines 75

5.2.2 Design 76

5.2.3 Testing 77

5.2.4 Monitoring and O&M 78

5.3 Design techniques 78

5.3.1 Wind turbine design concepts 78

5.3.2 Wind farm design and configuration 79

5.3.3 Design review 80

5.3.4 FMEA and FMECA 82

5.3.5 Integrating design techniques 86

5.4 Testing techniques 86

5.4.1 Introduction 86

5.4.2 Accelerated life testing 87

5.4.3 Sub-assembly testing 90

5.4.4 Prototype and drive train testing 90

5.4.5 Offshore environmental testing 92

5.4.6 Production testing 93

5.4.7 Commissioning 93

5.5 From high reliability to high availability 94

5.5.1 Relation of reliability to availability 94

5.5.2 Offshore environment 95

5.5.3 Detection and interpretation 95

5.5.4 Preventive and corrective maintenance 96

5.5.5 Asset management through life 96

5.6 Summary 96

5.7 References 97

6 Effect of reliability on offshore availability 99

6.1 Early European offshore wind farm experience 99

6.1.1 Horns Rev I wind farm, Denmark 99

6.1.2 Round 1 wind farms, the United Kingdom 100

6.1.3 Egmond aan Zee, Netherlands 102

6.2 Experience gained 103

6.2.1 General 103

6.2.2 Environment 104

6.2.3 Access 106

6.2.4 Offshore LV, MV and HV networks 107

6.2.4.1 Substation 107

6.2.4.2 Collector cables 108

6.2.4.3 Export cable connection 108

6.2.5 Other Round 1 wind farms, the United Kingdom 108

6.2.6 Commissioning 109

6.2.7 Planning offshore operations 109

6.3 Summary 109

6.4 References 110

7 Monitoring wind turbines 113

7.1 General 113

7.2 Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition 113

7.2.1 Why SCADA? 113

7.2.2 Signals and alarms 116

7.2.3 Value and cost of SCADA 116

7.3 Condition Monitoring Systems 117

7.3.1 Why CMS? 117

7.3.2 Different CMS techniques 118

7.3.2.1 Vibration 118

7.3.2.2 Oil debris and analysis 119

7.3.2.3 Strain 121

7.3.2.4 Electrical 121

7.3.3 Value and cost of CMS 122

7.4 SCADA and CMS monitoring successes 123

7.4.1 General 123

7.4.2 SCADA success 124

7.4.3 CMS success 130

7.5 Data integration 136

7.5.1 Multi-parameter monitoring 136

7.5.2 System architecture 137

7.5.3 Energy Technologies Institute project 137

7.6 Summary 137

7.7 References 138

8 Maintenance for offshore wind turbines 141

8.1 Staff and training 141

8.2 Maintenance methods 142

8.3 Spares 142

8.4 Weather 143

8.5 Access and logistics 143

8.5.1 Distance offshore 143

8.5.2 Vessels without access systems 145

8.5.3 Vessels with access systems 146

8.5.4 Helicopters 148

8.5.5 Fixed installation 151

8.5.6 Mobile jack-up installations 152

8.5.7 Access and logistics conclusions 155

8.6 Data management for maintaining offshore assets 157

8.6.1 Sources and access to data 157

8.6.2 An Offshore Wind Farm Knowledge Management System 159

8.6.2.1 Structure, data flow and the wind farm 159

8.6.2.2 Health monitoring 162

8.6.2.3 Asset management 162

8.6.2.4 Operations management 162

8.6.2.5 Maintenance management 162

8.6.2.6 Field maintenance 162

8.6.2.7 Information management 165

8.6.3 Complete system 165

8.7 Summary: towards an integrated maintenance strategy 165

8.8 References 167

9 Conclusions 169

9.1 Collating data 169

9.2 Operational planning for maintenance, RCM or CBM 169

9.3 Asset management 170

9.4 Reliability and availability in wind farm design 172

9.5 Prospective costs of energy for offshore wind 172

9.6 Certification, safety and production 172

9.7 Future prospects 173

9.8 References 173

10 Appendix 1: Historical evolution of wind turbines 175

11 Appendix 2: Reliability data collection for the wind industry 189

11.1 Introduction 189

11.1.1 Background 189

11.1.2 Previously developed methods for the wind industry 190

11.2 Standardising wind turbine taxonomy 190

11.2.1 Introduction 190

11.2.2 Taxonomy guidelines 190

11.2.3 Taxonomy structure 192

11.3 Standardising methods for collecting WT reliability data 193

11.4 Standardising downtime event recording 197

11.5 Standardising failure event recording 198

11.5.1 Failure terminology 198

11.5.2 Failure recording 198

11.5.3 Failure location 198

11.6 Detailed wind turbine taxonomy 199

11.7 Detailed wind turbine failure terminology 209

11.8 References 211

12 Appendix 3: WMEP operators report form 213

13 Appendix 4: Commercially available SCADA systems for WTs 215

13.1 Introduction 215

13.2 SCADA data 215

13.3 Commercially available SCADA data analysis tools 215

13.4 Summary 221

13.5 References 221

14 Appendix 5: Commercially available condition monitoring systems for WTs 223

14.1 Introduction 223

14.2 Reliability of wind turbines 223

14.3 Monitoring of wind turbines 224

14.4 Commercially available condition monitoring systems 226

14.5 Future of wind turbine condition monitoring 237

14.6 Summary 238

14.7 References 238

15 Appendix 6: Weather, its influence on offshore wind reliability 241

15.1 Wind, weather and large WTs 241

15.1.1 Introduction 241

15.1.2 Wind speed 241

15.1.3 Wind turbulence 243

15.1.4 Wave height and sea condition 246

15.1.5 Temperature 246

15.1.6 Humidity 246

15.2 Mathematics to analyse weather influence 246

15.2.1 General 246

15.2.2 Periodograms 246

15.2.3 Cross-correlograms 248

15.2.4 Concerns 249

15.3 Relationships between weather and failure rate 249

15.3.1 Wind speed 249

15.3.2 Temperature 251

15.3.3 Humidity 252

15.3.4 Wind turbulence 253

15.4 Value of this information 254

15.4.1 To wind turbine design 254

15.4.2 To wind farm operation 254

15.5 References 255

Index 257

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