ISBN-10:
1849198977
ISBN-13:
9781849198974
Pub. Date:
08/31/2016
Publisher:
Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET)
Optical MEMS for Chemical Analysis and Biomedicine

Optical MEMS for Chemical Analysis and Biomedicine

by Hongrui JiangHongrui Jiang

Hardcover

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Overview

Optical MEMS are micro-electromechanical systems merged with micro-optics. They allow sensing or manipulating optical signals on a very small size scale using integrated mechanical, optical, and electrical systems and hold great promise specifically in biomedical applications, among others.

This book describes the current state of optical MEMS in chemical and biomedical analysis with topics covered including fabrication and manufacturing technology for optical MEMS; electrothermally-actuated MEMS scanning micromirrors and their applications in endoscopic optical coherence tomography imaging; electrowetting-based microoptics; microcameras; biologically inspired optical surfaces for miniaturized optical systems; tuning nanophotonic cavities with nanoelectromechanical systems; quantum dot nanophotonics - micropatterned excitation, microarray imaging and hyperspectral microscopy; photothermal microfluidics; optical manipulation for biomedical applications; polymer-based optofluidic lenses; and nanostructured aluminum oxide-based optical biosensing and imaging.

Bringing together topics representing the most exciting progress made and current trends in the field in recent years, this book is an essential addition to the bookshelves of researchers and advanced students working on developing, manufacturing or applying optical MEMS and other sensors.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781849198974
Publisher: Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET)
Publication date: 08/31/2016
Series: Materials, Circuits and Devices Series
Pages: 464
Sales rank: 819,800
Product dimensions: 6.14(w) x 9.21(h) x (d)

About the Author

Hongrui Jiang is the Vilas Distinguished Achievement Professor and the Lynn H. Matthias Professor in Engineering at the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, where his research interests encompass micro optical imaging systems, biological/chemical sensing, microactuators, biomimetics and bioinspiration, and functional polymer materials. He is on the editorial boards of IEEE/ASME Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, Micromachines and International Journal on Theoretical and Applied Nanotechnology (IJTAN), and has served as a technical program committee member and session chair on several many international conferences on these topics. He is a Fellow of the Institute of Physics, the Royal Society of Chemistry, and the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering (AIMBE).

Table of Contents

Preface xiii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Optical MEMS and optofluidics 1

1.2 History 1

1.2.1 Processes and materials 1

1.2.2 Early devices and systems 2

1.3 Progress in optical MEMS and optofluidics 4

1.3.1 MEMS tunable optics 5

1.3.2 Optical MEMS for telecommunications 7

1.3.3 Biology and biomedical applications 9

1.4 Brief review of book content 11

1.5 Conclusion 16

References 16

2 Fabrication and manufacturing technology for optical MEMS 21

2.1 Introduction 21

2.2 Optical properties of materials 22

2.2.1 Thermo-optic effects 24

2.2.2 Optical materials standard to MEMS fabrication 25

2.2.3 Etching of standard MEMS materials 29

2.3 Non-standard materials incorporated into optical MEMS 31

2.3.1 IR materials 31

2.3.2 UV materials 35

2.3.3 III-V semiconductors 36

2.3.4 Bireffingent materials 40

2.3.5 Reflective materials 41

2.4 Challenges in optical MEMS fabrication 44

2.4.1 Diffraction 44

2.4.2 Dynamic mechanical effects 45

2.4.3 Multilayer stress and strain effects 47

2.4.4 Surface roughness 52

2.4.5 Thermomechanical challenges 53

References 55

3 Electrothermally actuated MEMS scanning micromirrors and their applications in endoscopic optical coherence tomography imaging 65

3.3 Introduction 65

3.2 Optical coherence tomography and endoscopic imaging 66

3.2.1 Optical coherence tomography 66

3.2.2 OCT endoscopic imaging 69

3.2.3 Challenges in endoscopic OCT 72

3.3 MEMS scanning micromirrors 72

3.3.1 Electrothermal bimorph actuation principle 73

3.3.2 Material selection 75

3.3.3 Electrothermal MEMS mirror designs 76

3.4 MEMS-based endoscopic OCT imaging 81

3.4.1 Internal organ imaging 82

3.4.2 In vivo animal imaging 84

3.4.3 Oral and teeth imaging 86

3.4.4 Meniscus and brain tissue imaging 89

3.5 Summary 91

References 91

4 Electrowetting-based microoptics 97

4.1 Brief history of electrowetting 97

4.2 Surface tension 97

4.3 Contact angle 100

4.4 Focal length of a liquid lens 101

4.5 Principles of electrowetting 101

4.6 Tunable liquid microlens utilizing electrowetting 103

4.7 Electro wetting Teased microlens on flexible curvilinear surface 113

4.8 Arrayed electrowetting prism and switchable microlens 114

4.9 Electrowetting-controlled liquid mirror 114

4.10 Electrowetting-driven optical switch and aperture 117

4.11 Electrowetting display 119

References 121

5 Microcameras 123

5.1 Introduction 123

5.2 Microlens 124

5.2.1 Hydrogel microlenses 124

5.2.2 Tunable microlenses 126

5.2.3 Reflective cylindrical lens 128

5.3 Electronic eye with curved image detector 130

5.3.1 Electronic eye camera with fixed focal length 130

5.3.2 Electronic eye zoom camera 134

5.4 Compound eye cameras 135

5.4.1 Lobster eye camera 135

5.4.2 TOMBO compound eye camera 137

5.4.3 Compound eye zoom camera 138

5.5 Multiple viewpoint camera 140

5.6 Camera arrays 145

5.7 Applications 146

5.7.1 Endoscopes 146

5.7.2 Laparoscopes 151

5.8 Conclusion 154

References 154

6 Biologically inspired optical surfaces for miniaturized optical systems 157

6.1 Introduction 157

6.2 Biological inspiration from index gradient 158

6.2.1 Natural gradient index 158

6.2.2 Mimicking index gradients 159

6.2.3 Summary 161

6.3 Biological inspiration from focal tunability 162

6.3.1 Tunable focus found in nature 162

6.3.2 Biomimicry 162

6.3.3 Summary 166

6.4 Biological inspiration from wide field of view 167

6.4.1 Compound eyes found in nature 167

6.4.2 Biomimicry 169

6.4.3 Summary 173

6.5 Biological inspiration from antireflection 173

6.5.1 Antireflection found in nature 173

6.5.2 Biomimicry 174

6.5.3 Summary 177

6.6 Biological inspiration from color 178

6.6.1 Structural color 178

6.6.2 Biomimicry 181

6.6.3 Summaiy 183

6.7 Illumination 183

6.7.1 Bioluminescence found in nature 183

6.7.2 Biomimicry 187

6.7.3 Summary 188

6.8 Conclusion 189

References 190

7 Tuning nanoptiotonic cavities with nanoelectromechanical systems 201

7.1 Introduction 201

7.2 PhC nanocavity designs 202

7.3 MEMS and NEMS 208

7.3.1 MEMS/NEMS comb-drive actuator design 209

7.3.2 NEMS fabrication processes 213

7.3.2 NEMS and nanophotonic devices testing 215

7.4 Tuning of PhC nanocavities with NEMS-driven dielectric probes 218

7.4.1 Tuning by single-tip dielectric probes 219

7.4.2 Tuning by multi-tip dielectric probes 221

7.5 Tuning of PhC nanocavities with NEMS-driven coupled cavities 224

7.5.1 Timing with dual-cavity coupling 224

7.5.2 Tuning with triple-cavity coupling 229

7.5.3 Ultrafine tuning of double-coupled multi-mode cavities 234

7.6 Tuning of PhC nanocavities with NEMS-driven nano-deformation 239

7.7 Conclusions 244

References 245

8 Quantum dot nanophotonics: micropatterned excitation, microarray imaging, and hyperspectral microscopy 251

8.1 Introduction 251

8.2 Principles 253

8.3 Fabrication processes 254

8.4 QD excitation 256

8.4.1 Photoluminescence 256

8.4.2 Electroluminescence 258

8.5 Applications of QDs 258

8.6 Micropattemed excitation 260

8.6.1 Phase separation 260

8.6.2 Spin coating 260

8.6.3 Langmuir-Blodgett method 260

8.6.4 Micro-contact printing 260

8.6.5 Thin film formation 261

8.6.6 Particle transfer 264

8.7 Light-emitting diodes 265

8.7.1 Inorganic LEDs 265

8.7.2 Organic LEDs 266

8.7.3 Quantum dot Sight-emitting diodes 266

8.8 Microarray imaging 273

8.8.1 Immunofluorescence imaging 273

8.8.2 Transmission mode imaging 275

8.9 Hyperspectral microscopy 277

References 280

9 Photothermal microfluidics 289

9.1 Introduction 289

9.1.1 Light is a special form of energy 289

9.1.2 Why photothermal? 289

9.2 Part 1: Basic principles 290

9.2.1 How much light energy can be compressed in the temporal and spatial domains? 290

9.2.2 How is light converted into heat in microfluidics? 291

9.2.3 Pathway 1: Direct water absorption 291

9.2.4 Pathway 2: Light-absorbing materials 292

9.2.5 Pathway 3: Nonlinear optical absorption 294

9.3 Part 2: Photothermal microfluidics and nanofluidics for cell manipulation 297

9.3.1 Femtosecond laser transfection and subcellular surgery 297

9.3.2 Nanosecond pulsed laser-induced cavitation bubbles for transfection 300

9.3.3 Nanoparticle-assisted photothermal therapy and cell manipulation 303

9.3.4 Photothermal therapy 303

9.3.5 Photothermal cargo delivery 304

9.3.6 Photothermal gene regulation in cells 307

9.4 Part 3: Photothermal microfluidics for fluid control 309

9.4.1 Surface tension-based photothermal microfluidics 309

9.4.2 Photothermal-induced material change 310

9.4.3 Photothermal-driven electrokinetics 312

9.4.4 Cavitation bubble-driven ultrahigh-speed microfluidics 313

9.4.5 Cavitation bubble-based fluid pumping 315

References 317

10 Optical manipulation for biomedical applications 325

10.1 Introduction 325

10.2 Optical tweezers (OT) 327

10.2.1 Multiple OT 329

10.2.2 Biological applications of OT 331

10.2.3 Integration with other technologies 333

10.3 Other types of optical manipulation 334

10.3.1 Near-field particle trapping 334

10.3.2 Optical cell sorters 334

10.3.3 Optical actuation of fluids, droplets, and bubbles 335

10.4 Optically induced dielectrophoresis (ODEP) 336

10.5 Optical cell surgery 344

10.5.1 Optical cell poration 344

10.5.2 Optical cell surgery 349

10.6 Conclusion 351

References 351

11 Polymer-based optofluidic lenses 367

11.1 Introduction 367

11.2 Out-of-plane optofluidic lenses 369

11.3 In-plane optofluidic lenses 376

11.4 Prospective and conclusion 383

Acknowledgments 384

References 384

12 Nanostructured aluminum oxide-based optical biosensing and imaging 391

12.1 Introduction 391

12.2 General fabrication process of NAO thin film 393

12.3 Fabrication and integration of NAO thin film micropatterns 398

12.3.1 Technique 1: Lift-off-based process 398

12.3.2 Technique 2: NAO thin film microlithography and etching based process 401

12.4 Optical properties of NAO thin film 403

12.4.1 Optical interference signals from NAO thin film 403

12.4.2 Optical emission from NAO thin film under UV irradiance 407

12.5 NAO-enabled optical biosensing 408

12.5.1 NAO thin film-based label-free biosensing 408

12.5.2 Cancer protein biomarker detection 410

12.5.3 Circulating tumor cell (CTC) detection 413

12.6 Fluorescence detection and imaging 415

12.6.1 Background 415

12.6.2 Fluorescence enhancement by NAO surface 416

12.6.3 Fluorescence enhancement on NAO micropatterns 420

12.6.4 Fluorescence protein sensor based on NAO micropatterns 421

12.6.5 Fluorescence DNA sensor based on NAO substrate 423

12.7 Summary 426

References 426

Index 435

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