The pepper fruit is commonly consumed as fresh fruit. In addition, the fruit is used in food industry and in manufacture processing, either fermented or concentrated. The pepper fruit is a rich source of bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties to which highly desirable medicinal properties and health benefits have been attributed. The stability and concentration of these bioactive compounds are affected by preharvest factors such as cultivar, cultivation methods and fertilisation, grafting, shading, stage of maturity, and postharvest factors such as prestorage treatments, temperature management and packaging. Chapter One of this book discusses in detail the preharvest and postharvest factors influencing the functional properties of pepper fruit. Chapter Two reviews electron paramagnetic resonance imaging of paramagnetic species in pepper seeds. Chapter Three studies the technology and properties of drying peppers after harvesting. Chapter Four presents the potential use of peppers for therapeutic management besides its use as a food additive in various spicy cuisines. Chapter Five provides an overview of recent research on the chemical profile, health properties, and processing of peppers.