Renewable and Alternative Energy

Renewable and Alternative Energy

by Robert Curley

Hardcover

$35.25

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781615304882
Publisher: Rosen Publishing Group, Incorporated, The
Publication date: 08/15/2011
Series: Energy: Past, Present, and Future Series
Pages: 144
Product dimensions: 6.20(w) x 9.10(h) x 0.50(d)
Age Range: 15 - 17 Years

Table of Contents

Introduction viii

Chapter 1 Catching Rays: Solar Energy 1

Solar Heating 1

Solar Power 3

Solar Cells and Solar Panels 5

The Photovoltaic Effect 6

Solar Cell Structure and Operation 9

Solar Panel Design 12

Development of Solar Cells 15

Chapter 2 Chasing the Wind: Wind Energy 17

Wind Power 17

The History of Windmills 20

Wind Turbines 24

Horizontal-Axis Machines 24

Vertical-Axis Machines 26

Chapter 3 Harnessing Water: Hydropower 29

Hydroelectric Power 29

The Three Gorges Dam 32

Tidal Power and Wave Power 34

Waterwheels 37

Water Turbines 40

Impulse Turbines 41

Reaction Turbines 43

Output and Speed Control 49

Cavitation 49

Turbine Selection on the Basis of Specific Speed 50

Turbine Model Testing 51

Chapter 4 Tapping the Earths: Geothermal Energy 52

Hot Springs 53

Hot Springs, Arkansas 54

Geysers 56

Geothermal Power 59

Steam Turbines 60

Principal Compenents 61

Blading Design 61

Turbine Staging 64

Power Development 66

Chapter 5 Converting Biomass: Biofuels 67

Types of Biofuels 67

The Manufacture of Ethanol 69

Economic and Environmental Considerations 71

New Findings on Biofuels 74

Chapter 6 Splitting the Atom: Nuclear Energy 75

Nuclear Fission 75

Chain Reaction and Criticality 77

Reactor Control 77

Fissile and Fertile Materials 78

Heat Removal 79

Shielding 79

Critical Concentration and Size 80

Thermal, Intermediate, and Fast Reactors 81

The International Atomic Energy Agency 82

Chapter 7 Nuclear Reactor Design and Components 84

Core 84

Fuel Types 84

Coolants and Moderators 86

Reflector 87

Reactor Control Elements 87

Structural Components 90

Coolant System 90

Containment System 91

Types of Reactors 93

Light-Water Reactor 94

High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor 96

Liquid-Metal Reactors 97

Candu Reactor 98

Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor 99

Other Power Reactor Types 99

Chapter 8 Fuel Cells 100

Principles of Operation 101

The Electrochemical System 102

Designing Fuel Cell Systems 104

Types of Fuel Cells 106

Alkaline Fuel Cells 106

Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells 107

Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells 107

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 108

Solid Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells 109

Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell 109

Development of Fuel Cells 109

Conclusion 112

Glossary 115

Bibliography 117

Index 119

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