The 17th University Conference on Ceramics, which also was the 7th LBL/MMRD International Materials Symposium, was held on the campus of the University of California at Berkeley from July 28 to August 1, 1980. It was devoted to the subject of surfaces and interfaces in ceramic and ceramic-metal systems. The program was timely and of great interest, as indicated by the large number of contributed papers, which included contributions from ten foreign countries. These proceedings are divided into the following categories dealing with the chemistry and physics of interfaces: calculations of interface/surface states, characterization of surfaces and inter faces, thermodynamics of interfaces, influence of surface and inter faces on selected ceramic processes, grain boundary structures, effects of grain boundaries on deformation and fracture, interfacial phenomena, formation of interfaces, development of adhesion, and reactions at interfaces. A number of papers deal specifically with the Si-Si02 interface, which probably has received more attention than any other because of its importance in the electronics industry. This coverage fulfills the principal objective of the symposium which was to explore and assess the current fundamental understand ing of interfaces and surfaces. A parallel objective of the symposium was fulfilled by a group of papers dealing with the correlation of interfacial characteris tics with mechanical behavior. This group includes papers dealing with the adherence of dissimilar materials at interfaces.
Table of ContentsCalculations of Interface/Surface States.- Pseudopotential Calculations for Ideal Interfaces.- Energies of Coincidence Twist Boundaries, Stacking Faults, and Free Surfaces in Metal Oxides with NaCl Structure.- The Nature and Role of Surface Charge in Ceramics.- Characterization of Surfaces and Interfaces.- Physical and Chemical Characterization of Interfaces by Electron Optical Methods.- Use of Photoemission with Synchrotron Radiation to Probe Surfaces on an Atomic Scale.- Improved Electrical Characterization of Ceramic Oxides: Bulk vs Interface Effects.- Thermodynamics of Interfaces.- Chemical Aspects of Equilibrium Segregation to Ceramic Interfaces.- Interfaces Between Metals and Ceramics.- Interfacial Energetics in Metal-Metal, Metal-Ceramic, Metal-Semiconductor, and Related Solid-Solid and Liquid-Solid Systems.- Influence of Surfaces and Interfaces on Selected Ceramic Processes.- Adsorption of Dispersants from Nonaqueous Solutions.- The Reaction Surface in Reduction.- Interfacially Controlled Phenomena in the System K2CO3-KAlO2.- Development of Phases in in Situ-Reacted Mullite-Zirconia Composites.- Grain BoundariesStructure.- Microstructure and Chemical Composition of Grain Boundaries in Ceramics.- TEM Studies on the Structure of Low Angle Grain Boundaries in Nickel Oxide.- Observations on Grain Boundary Structures in Nickel Oxide.- Amorphous Grain Boundary Phases in Ferrimagnetic (Mn, Zn)Fe2O4 and Ferroelectric PZT Ceramics.- The Effect of Interfacial Material on Tailored Ceramic Nuclear Waste form Dissolution.- Grain BoundariesEffect on Deformation and Fracture.- Grain Boundary Migration in Iron During Zincification.- Grain Boundary Migration in LiF.- Creep Cavitation Effect in Polycrystalline Alumina.- Redistribution of Stresses During Creep-Bending of Grain-Boundary Sliding Materials.- Elastic Creep of Brittle Ceramics with Special Reference to Creep by Crack Growth in Aluminum Oxide.- Role of Interfacial Defect Creation-Annihilation Processes at Grain Boundaries on the Diffusional Creep of Polycrystalline Alumina.- The Influence of Grain Boundaries on Creep of KBr.- Microstructural Aspect of Creep Deformation in Two Phase Ceramics.- Influence of Grain Boundary Silica Impurity on Alumina Toughness.- Observations on the Sub-Critical Growth and Healing of Micro-Cracks in Brittle Ceramics.- The Si-SiO2 Interface.- The Si-SiO2 Interface: Current Understanding of Chemical and Electronic Defects.- Electron Spectroscopy Studies of the Si-SiO2 Interface.- Chlorine Incorporation and Phase Separation at the SiO2/Si Interface During Thermal Oxidation of Silicon in C1/O2 Atmospheres.- Stability Studies of the Chlorine Containing Phase at the SiO2/Si Interface Produced by hcl/O2 Oxidation of Silicon.- Interfacial Phenomena.- Interfacial Phenomena During Chemical Vapor Deposition.- An Electron Microscopy Analysis of a Simple Metal/Ceramic Interface.- Electron Microscopy of Barium Bismuth Titanate Multilayer Ceramics.- Formation of Interfaces.- Wetting, Spreading and Reactions at Liquid/Solid Interfaces.- Predictive Model for Interfacial Phenomena Between Molten Metals and Sapphire in Varying Oxygen Partial Pressures.- Wetting of A12O3-C2O3 Solid Solutions by Molten Copper and Iron.- Influence of Oxygen Partial Pressure on Wettability of Vitreous Silica by Molten Silver.- The Effect of Oxygen Partial Pressure on the Wetting of SiC, AlN, and Si3N4 by Si and a Method for Calculating the Surface Energies Involved.- Development of Adhesion.- Role of Nickel in Porcelain Enamelling.- The Use of a Flame-Sprayed Undercoat to Improve the Adherence of SiO2-A12O3 Dental Ceramics on Ni-Cr and Co-Cr Alloys.- Alumina Scale Adherence to CoCrAl Alloys and Coatings.- Spreading and Reactions of Molten Metals on and with Cemented Carbides.- Reactions at Interfaces.- A Study of Solid Metal/Ceramic Reactions.- Solid State Metal-Ceramic Reaction Bonding.- High Temperature Metallizing of Alumina.- Reaction of ZnO with Polished Sapphire Surfaces.- Interaction of Molten Silicon with Silicon Metal Oxynitride Solid Solutions.- Reactions at Alkali Metal-Glass Interfaces.- The Effect of Thermal History on the Structure of Chemically and Vapor Deposited Silver Films on Glass.- Barium Silicate Glass/Incolel X-750 Interaction.- Mechanical Properties.- A Simple Method for Adhesion Measurements.- The Adhesion of Plasma Sprayed Ceramic Coatings to Metals.- Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Metal-to-Ceramic and Ceramic-to-Ceramic Joints.- Work of Adhesion Measurements by a Periodic Cracking Technique.- Measurement of Thick Film Adhesion by an Impact Separation Technique.- Contact Stress and Coefficient of Friction Effects on Ceramic Interfaces.- Environmental Effect on the Mechanical Strength of Glass.- The Effects of Preoxidation on the Strenth and Fatigue of Hot-Pressed Silicon Nitride.- Interface Effects.- Transient Liquid Phase Bonding of Silicon Nitride Ceramics.- Grain Boundaries in Carbon- and Boron-Densfied SiC: Examination by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy.- Author Index.