The Inclusive Leader: An Applied Approach to Diversity, Change, and Management is a unique contribution to the complex subject of diversity and leadership. Dr. Ayad and Dr. Rahim build on their vast and diverse experience to translate academic concepts of diversity and inclusion as well as leadership and management into practical roadmap for students, managers, executives, and business leaders.
This book is a renewal and expansion on their Amazon bestselling book Leading Through Diversity: Transforming Managers Into Effective Leaders where they revised and updated the topics of leadership vs. management, diversity and inclusion, change management, collaborative servant leadership, and team building. Further, they added new critical topics to leading in the new era, such as: diverse multinational organizations, and cyborgs and diversity and inclusion. Ultimately, this book goes beyond philosophical arguments of the past to "applied management" and "leadership in action" today and in the future.
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The Inclusive Leader
An Applied Approach to Diversity, Change, and Management
By Amine Ayad, Emad Rahim
Balboa PressCopyright © 2016 Dr. Amine Ayad and Dr. Emad Rahim
All rights reserved.
THE ART AND SCIENCE OF LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT
It has been stated that managers are people who do things right, and leaders are people who do the right thing. Other distinctions between leader and managers include: Transformational vs. Transactional, Leading People vs. Managing Tasks, Vision vs. Goals, Heart vs. Head, etc. While such distinctions serve to theoretically define disparate functional responsibilities, in reality roles of leadership and management blur since effective managers are also leaders and most leaders are often required to manage. Further, in reality it is impossible to imagine a functioning body that is solely transformational or transactional let alone imagining a function body with a head only or a heart only.
Personality, traits, analytical skills, communication styles, and people skills can often distinguish whether a person's natural inclination is best suited to lead and manage, manage, and / or lead. Nevertheless, it is widely accepted that leaders create a vision and inspire employees to translate the vision into reality while managers create and execute specific plans to translate the vision into tangible results. The smaller the business unit, the more managerial functions leaders assume but a business unit wouldn't have existed without visionary leadership nor it can survive without innovative leadership that anticipates, plans, and defeat the complexity, uncertainty, and unknowns of the future. Usually leaders display traits of innovation, grace, and inspiration while managers exhibit characteristics that tend to be functional, technical, administrative, command and control, and often expected to maintain or merely improve the status quo.
Caroselli, author of Leadership Skills for Managers, listed five duties that managers typically perform in the workplace:
1. They direct the flow of work within an organization versus performing it directly.
2. They perform human resource management-like duties that may involve the recruitment, hiring, development, termination, and disciplining staff.
3. They should exercise their authority role over-seeing the quality of work as well the staff 's workplace environmental conditions.
4. They should assist in managing the communication channel between staff and upper management; acting as the staff liaison and resource linker.
5. They should motivate their staff to perform and contribute to the culture of the organization and its business practices by getting them to take ownership.
Just as Caroselli posited five traits of managers, he also identified five traits of leaders, emphasizing that leaders find it difficult being content with the status quo. He said leaders:
1. Want to always make a difference and inspire others.
2. Create something of value that did not exist before.
3. Generate positive energy in their environment.
4. Create and invite change; being a change agent.
5. Apply vision into action, developing tangible plans.
The Nature and Reality of Leadership & Management
Leadership is a combination of nature and nurture. A born leader may feel more comfortable in leadership roles than leaders who are learning leadership competencies by nurture. Interestingly, leaders who shaped the world such as Moses, Jesus, and Mohammed as well as Carl Marx, Pharos of Egypt, Emperors, and many other political, social, organizational, and religious leaders throughout history didn't attend formal leadership training courses even though they may have learned through "divine interventions" or family structures, experiences, and self-reflection.
When examining leadership traits and characters, there are several foundational questions to ask: What makes a leader a true leader? How do we measure leadership effectiveness? While leadership studies focus on the dynamic relationship between leadership concepts, leaders, and organizations, there are specific factors associated with leadership including technical, tactical, and analytical skills let alone character, charisma, knowledge, wisdom and judgment, creativity, communication, and courage.
Intrinsic capabilities (nature) and expertise (nurture) provide leaders the opportunity to develop approaches and strategies that are most appropriate for specific organizational environments and organizational goals. Regardless of how strong organizational culture is, people throughout the organization, especially large organizations, may perceive leadership differently. Consequently, in large organizations good leaders understand the role of culture and big ideas to unify and align people, actions, and organizational goals because the role of the leader is to actualize the purpose of the organization for the present and in the future. We support the idea that leadership is an action driven behavior, and "Leading-in-Action" necessitates a deep understanding of the leader's environment not only in the present but also in the future. This includes the culture, behavior, attitudes, history and thought-process of the leader's organization and its people. This renders leadership a collective responsibility with each member of the organization charged with delivering certain aspects of the organizational purpose. Conversely when employees disconnect from the purpose of the organization, accountability lie with the leaders because it is their responsibility to actualize the purpose of the organization in a sustainable manner. Consequently, one way to measure the effectiveness of leadership is through results as defined by the purpose of the organization.
Nevertheless, there are several inherited problems with strictly associating leadership with organizational goals and results. The environment may impact results in a subtle way. Functional knowledge, or a supportive management regime, may also impact results. In 1991, Buccino argued that the failures of 112,826 retailers in 1990, a 15% increase over 1989, were not the result of recession, but rather the result of internal problems. Specific management shortcomings identified as key contributors to business failure were:
1) Inadequate leadership - Effective management and supervision are key elements to achieving a competent and committed workforce. Usually, staff is an organization's most valuable asset, and it is important to help them become as productive as possible. Managers and supervisors have a pivotal role in positioning an organization as a facility of choice. However, most managers and supervisors cannot achieve this goal on their own.
2) Poor asset management – Most companies who do not have a clear idea of what proper assets assignments should be, have the potential to bring down the company. Sometimes companies invest in assets that only bring temporary advantage and then the asset is simply outgrown. With this thinking, the theory behind every advantage and idea proves that the company should assess and quantitatively evaluate potential investments.
3) Overexpansion – This management act would actually affect the whole organization financially. Most companies only see that expanding the business guarantees more sales and let the business grow more. However, certain limitations accounted for as overexpansion can lead to bankruptcy if not carefully evaluated.
4) Inadequate controls - This refers to the ability of management to have control over different departments. Management should have control over all obligations, and should review, approve, and otherwise document all activities.
The ability to manage situations to the benefit of the organization is a critical leadership competency. Leaders should have creative ideas and see situations from a new perspective. As such, leaders should have the perseverance, the wisdom and the unwavering belief that situations are opportunities, not a fate to be accepted.
Styles of Leadership
Ancient forms of leadership focused on physical strengths. Leadership required fighting and winning on the battlefield. They earned their reputation by the amount of injuries they sustained and survived; let alone the number of battles they won. Eventually, thoughtful strengths evolved to intertwine with physical strengths. Perhaps King Richard and Saladin represented an image of this duality: courage and generosity. Eventually, farming communities and civil societies required different leadership styles, and the union between leadership, ideology, society, and economy became evident in reality as well as in research.
The industrial age impacted the way leaders perceived the world. The machine necessitated certain discipline in the behavior of leaders and followers; bureaucratic leadership thrived. Many leaders treated humans like machines and focused on efficiencies, quantification, predictability, and control. Time and motion studies to improve productivity boomed. Under such circumstances, individual workers became part of a machine that served productivity and efficiency of organizations. Most Leaders' perspectives adopted this reality and acted accordingly.
Such a view of leadership faced challenges because humans are not machines and it is impossible to operate based on such influences; thus leadership styles shifted to respond more favorably to human nature and evolving realities.
Servant leadership, ethical leadership, authentic leadership, transformational leadership, transactional leadership, charismatic leadership, collaborative leadership, autocratic leadership, democratic leadership, inspirational leadership, situational leadership, etc. are expressions that describe leaders' behaviors as they lead people and organizations. The adjectives describing the styles are self-explanatory; however, it is important to realize that leadership is about behaviors, and behaviors are usually the result of power, thought and beliefs. In most case, thoughts and beliefs are the result of experiences, environment, and culture. Since experiences, thoughts, culture, and situations vary greatly, it is safe to argue that there is no single style of effective leadership. Often leaders adapt their behavior to meet the needs of their followers and their particular environment.
From a behavioral perspective, leaders and managers may fall into four main classifications:
1. Directing (i.e. close supervision and specific instructions).
2. Coaching (i.e. close supervision, solicitation of ideas, and explanation of decisions).
3. Supporting (i.e. supportive and sharing of decision- making responsibilities).
4. Delegating (i.e. empower subordinates to own solving problems and decision making).
Executive presence is important to leadership style, but character is more important than "presence" because character defines "presence"; in fact personality and presence become a leadership burden without a strong moral character that acts with unwavering integrity.
Regardless of the behavioral style leaders adopt, their reaction to success and failure add to the overall perception of their effectiveness and style. Some leaders are totally intolerant to setbacks and they tend to take a deep analytical approach that is resistant to taking intuitive risks. Others encourage and reward intuitive risks and tend to have a high level of tolerance to failures that result in learning and the motivation to try again. Usually those leaders redefine success and failure and eventually end up encouraging workers to imagine beyond limits. They perceive failure as a long-term investment in the "learning organization" and success as a function of "daring" not a function of immediate results.
Practically, it seems futile to "box" leadership into a single dimension or expression. In fact, attempts to isolate leadership into one or few specific components are very dangerous because it may deprive leadership from its core purpose. From Enron to A.I.G. and from dictatorship to political and religious scandals there seems to be a clear distinction between the success and failure of leadership. Further, historic realities, theory, and practice agree on a set of critical competencies that inform, guide, and shape leadership.
Effective leadership must respond ethically and humanely to people whom are being led and to the mission that the group or organization is trying to accomplish. A person who is leading group of engineers to design a complex structure may use a different style than a person who is leading an army to defeat an enemy. Nevertheless, both leaders must be able manifest integrity, courage, humility, vision, sincerity, and exceptional communication skills to name a few competencies. Leaders use such competencies skillfully to create trust, inspiration, and energy to accomplish the task, goal, and / or mission. Typically, humans are motivated by "fear" of punishment, "hope" of rewards, combination of both "fear and hope", and / or higher purpose. Consequently, it is imperative for leaders to understand their team or followers and create the correct motivational dynamics. Effective leaders create a team that is motivated by a higher purpose because a sound purpose minimizes the ills and negativities that may come with rewards, punishments, and / or a combination of incentives and punishments.
For any purpose to become a living paradigm of an organization, effective leaders need a fertile imagination and exceptional two-way communication to create and / or define the purpose. This imagination, usually, evolves through time and is not the result of an overnight decision. While it is preferable for leaders to be visionary with big dreams, they often can surround themselves with talented people who possess imagination and can help the leader in creating the vision.
Two-way communication is critical for effective leaders to empower their followers to influence the purpose by their input and to allow the leader to communicate the vision for followers' buy-in and execution. One of the most important aspects of two-way communication is 360-feedback where effective leaders gather information to discover blind spots, strengths, and weaknesses of their personal behavior and vision through the eyes of the followers. 360-feedback becomes a futile exercise if it is not candid and sincere and / or if not followed by meaningful behavioral changes.
In the process of communication, effective leaders ask pertinent questions of key stakeholders within the organization, and use the data / feedback in a useful manner.
In 2002, Clutterbuck and Sheila provided a set of guidelines readily incorporated in every leader's toolbox of communication:
Set mutual expectations clearly.
Ensure that everyone has very clear objectives and performance measures.
Plan and communicate the steps between where the team is now and where it needs to be.
Give continuous feedback.
Give people stretching goals but ensure they have all the support and resources they need to achieve the stretched goal.
Encourage and establish team members' sense of self-belief.
In previously pages, we listed different styles of effective leadership and indicated that one way to measure the effectiveness of leadership is through results as defined by the purpose of the organization. We must assert that the extent to which a leader is able to flex her or his leadership style may define the effectiveness of leaders and their ultimate success. Leaders who are comfortable and / or limited to only one basic leadership style tend to be effective within specific situations. Other leaders who are able to modify their behavior to fit any situation tend to be more effective in multiple situations. We have witnessed situations where the entire organization changed reporting, language, and artifacts to align with a new leader where effectiveness would favor the other way around. Great leaders adapt to different situations.
Behaviors that build trust
Marriam-Webster dictionary defines trust as assured reliance on the character, ability, strength, or truth of someone or something. Managers, leaders, and academics agree that trust is critical to performance and success but it takes considerable amount of efforts and time to build, protect, and maintain trust. Further, trusting relationships remain fragile and subject to destruction in one instance of untrustworthiness. Below are twenty tested and verified behaviors that can build trust and performance:
1. Don't promise what you may not be able to deliver; let alone what you can't deliver
2. Be ready to take a "bullet", let alone hits, to protect your team
3. Demonstrate "care" by taking action at the expense of your personal time
Excerpted from The Inclusive Leader by Amine Ayad, Emad Rahim. Copyright © 2016 Dr. Amine Ayad and Dr. Emad Rahim. Excerpted by permission of Balboa Press.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Table of Contents
ContentsChapter 1 The Art and Science of Leadership and Management, 1,
Chapter 2 Diversity And Inclusion as a Leadership Asset, 33,
Chapter 3 Leadership and Change Management, 79,
Chapter 4 Collaborative Servant Leadership as an Effective Leadership Model, 95,
Chapter 5 Leadership Tools & Team Building, 115,