The NFL National Anthem Protests

The NFL National Anthem Protests

by Margaret Haerens


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21st-Century Turning Points is a general reference series that gives readers a clear, authoritative, and unbiased understanding of major fast-breaking events, movements, people, and issues that are transforming American life, culture, and politics in this turbulent new century. Each volume constitutes a one-stop resource for learning about a single issue or event currently dominating America's news headlines and political discussions-issues or events that, in many cases, are also driving national debate about our country's leaders, institutions, values, and priorities.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781440869037
Publisher: ABC-CLIO, Incorporated
Publication date: 12/07/2018
Series: 21st-Century Turning Points
Pages: 140
Sales rank: 803,397
Product dimensions: 6.30(w) x 9.30(h) x 0.60(d)

About the Author

Margaret Haerens is a writer and researcher who has written extensively on American politics, policy, and history.

Table of Contents

Series Foreword ix

Chapter 1 Overview of the NFL National Anthem Protests 1

Chapter 2 Landmark Events 11

"The Star-Spangled Banner" Is Played at a Sporting Event for the First Time (1918) 11

"The Star-Spangled Banner" Becomes the National Anthem (1931) 14

The NFL Mandates the National Anthem Be Played before Games (1945) 17

Smith and Carlos Give the Black Power Salute at the Olympic Games (1968) 20

The Olympic Games Protest (1972) 23

The NBA Suspends Mahmoud Abdul-Raul for Not Standing during the Anthem (1996) 26

The NFL Mandates Players Be on the Field for the National Anthem (2009) 29

St. Louis Rams Protest Police Brutality (2014) 33

University of Missouri Protests Force President's Resignation (2015) 36

Colin Kaepernick Refuses to Stand for the National Anthem (2016) 41

Trump Calls for the Firing of Protesting NFL Players (2017) 43

NFL Protests Spread in Response to Trump Criticisms (2017) 46

The NFL Creates a Controversial New Anthem Policy (2018) 50

The White House Cancels Its Super Bowl Championship Celebration (2018) 54

Chapter 3 Impacts of the NFL National Anthem Protests 59

NFL Protests Impact Corporate Sponsors 59

NFL Protests Affect National Politics 64

Impact on Other Sports Leagues 68

Debates on Patriotism and Constitutional Rights 73

How People Perceive the National Anthem 76

NFL Protests and Race Relations 80

Issues of Racial Inequality and Police Brutality 84

The NFL's Image and Popularity 88

Chapter 4 Profiles 95

Boyer, Nate (1981-) 95

Former NFL player and military veteran who inspired Colin Kaepernick to kneel in protest

Goodell, Roger (1959- ) 98

NFL Commissioner since 2006

Jenkins, Malcolm (1987- ) 101

NFL player who knell in protest in 2016 and cofounded the Players Coalition

Johnson, Christopher (1959- ) 104

Chairman and CFO of the New York Jets who chose not to fine or suspend protesting players

Jones, Jerry (1942-) 107

Owner, president, and general manager of the Dallas Cowboys who claimed NFL protests negatively affect the league

Kaepernick, Colin (1987-) 110

Former NFL player and the first player to kneel in protest during the National Anthem

Kraft, Robert (1941- ) 115

New England Patriots owner who supported players' right to protest but remained concerned about financial implications for the league

Long, Chris (1985- ) 117

First white NFL player to participate in protests during the National Anthem

Reid, Eric (1991-) 121

Former teammate of Colin Kaepernick and second NFL player to kneel in protest during the National Anthem

Trump, Donald J. (1946- ) 124

Forty-fifth U.S. president, who made the NFL protests a national political issue by criticizing protesting players

Villanueva, Alejandro (1988- ) 127

Pittsburgh Steelers player who stood visibly at the front of the players' tunnel during the National Anthem while teammates remained out of sight inside the tunnel

Further Resources 131

Index 135

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