Pub. Date:
Springer US
The Peripheral Nervous System

The Peripheral Nervous System

by John HubbardJohn Hubbard


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The peripheral nervous system is usually defined as the cranial nerves, spinal nerves, and peripheral ganglia which lie outside the brain and spinal cord. To describe the structure and function of this system in one book may have been possible last century. Today, only a judicious selection is possible. It may be fairly claimed that the title of this book is not misleading, for in keeping the text within bounds only accounts of olfaction, vision, audition, and vestibular function have been omitted, and as popularly understood these topics fall into the category of special senses. This book contains a comprehensive treatment of the structure and function of peripheral nerves (including axoplasmic flow and trophic func­ tions); junctional regions in the autonomic and somatic divisions of the peripheral nervous system; receptors in skin, tongue, and deeper tissues; and the integrative role of ganglia. It is thus a handbook of the peripheral nervous system as it is usually understood for teaching purposes. The convenience of having this material inside one set of covers is already proven, for my colleagues were borrowing parts of the text even while the book was in manuscript. It is my belief that lecturers will find here the information they need, while graduate students will be able to get a sound yet easily read account of results of research in their area. JOHN 1. HUBBARD vii Contents SECTION I-PERIPHERAL NERVE Chapter 1 Peripheral Nerve Structure 3 Henry deF. Webster 3 1. Introduction .

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781461587019
Publisher: Springer US
Publication date: 02/26/2012
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1974
Pages: 530
Product dimensions: 5.98(w) x 9.02(h) x 0.04(d)

Table of Contents

Section I—Peripheral Nerve.- 1 Peripheral Nerve Structure.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Histology and Development.- 3. The Axon.- 3.1. Filaments and Microtubules.- 3.2. Other Organelles and the Axolemma.- 4. Sheaths of Axons.- 4.1. Schwann Cells.- 4.2. Myelin.- 4.3. Function of Schwann Cells and Their Myelin Sheaths.- 4.4. Connective Tissue Sheaths.- 5. References.- 2 The Nerve Impulse.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Passive Electrical Properties.- 3. Voltage-Clamp Analysis of the Ionic Current.- 4. Momentary Current-Voltage Relations.- 5. The Threshold Conditions for Excitation.- 6. Factors Determining Conduction Velocity.- 7. References.- 3 Axoplasmic Transport—Energy Metabolism and Mechanism.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Fast Axoplasmic Transport.- 2.1. Characterization.- 2.2. Mechanism and Energy Supply.- 2.3. Transport and Membrane Function.- 3. Slow Axoplasmic Transport.- 3.1. Characterization.- 3.2. Mechanism.- 4. References.- Section IIA—Junctional Transmission—Structure.- 4 Neuromuscular Junctions and Electric Organs.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Typical Neuromuscular Junction.- 2.1. Distribution and Location of Nerve Terminals.- 2.2. The Axon.- 2.3. The Synaptic Space.- 2.4. Postjunctional Muscle Fiber.- 3. Variations of Motor End Plates.- 3.1. Variations from Class to Class.- 3.2. Endings on Slow-Twitch and Rapid-Twitch Fibers.- 3.3. Endings on Slow Tonic Muscle Fibers.- 4. Electric Organs.- 4.1. Electrocytes.- 4.2. Innervation and Ultrastructure.- 5. References.- 5 The Peripheral Autonomic System.- 1. Anatomical Considerations: Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions.- 2. Morphological Observations.- 2.1. Preganglionic Neurons.- 2.2. Postganglionic Neurons.- 2.3. Adrenal and Extra-Adrenal Chromaffin Cells.- 3. References.- 6 Ultrastructure of Ganglionic Junctions.- 1. General Considerations.- 2. Sympathetic Ganglia.- 2.1. Amphibia.- 2.2. Reptiles.- 2.3. Mammals.- 2.4. Some Effects of Different Fixatives.- 3. Parasympathetic Ganglia.- 3.1. Ciliary Ganglion.- 3.2. Otic Ganglion.- 3.3. Ganglia of the Enteric Plexuses.- 3.4. Cardiac Ganglion Cells.- 4. Summary and Comment.- 5. References.- Section IIB—Junctional Transmission—Function.- 7(i) Neuromuscular Transmission—Presynaptic Factors.- 1. Synthesis, Storage, and Release of Acetylcholine.- 1.1. Synthesis of ACh.- 1.2. Storage and Release.- 2. The Acceleration of Release by Nerve Impulses.- 2.1. The Role of the Nerve Impulse.- 2.2. The Role of Ca2+.- 2.3. After- Effects of Depolarization-Secretion Coupling.- 3. References.- 7 (ii) Neuromuscular Transmission—The Transmitter-Receptor Combination.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Molecular Basis of Chemoelectric Transduction.- 3. Pharmacology.- 4. Chemical Nature of the Acetylcholine Receptor.- 5. Desensitization.- 6. References.- 7 (iii) Neuromuscular Transmission—Enzymatic Destruction of Acetylcholine.- 1. Location and Measurement of Cholinesterases at the Junction.- 1.1. Histochemical Staining.- 1.2. Microchemical Methods.- 1.3. Assay of External AChE.- 1.4. Radioautographic Methods.- 2. Amounts and Types of Cholinesterase at the Junctions.- 3. Requirement for AChE in Impulse Transmission.- 4. Relation of AChE to ACh- Receptors.- 5. Quantitative Relation of AChE to ACh at the End Plate.- 6. References.- 8 Ganglionic Transmission.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Response of Autonomic Ganglia to Preganglionic Volleys.- 2.1. Response of Normal Ganglia.- 2.2. Response of Curarized Ganglia.- 2.3. Slow Ganglionic Responses and Afterdischarges.- 3. Electrical Constants of Ganglion Cell Membrane.- 4. Action Potentials of Single Ganglion Cells.- 4.1. Response to Antidromic Stimulation.- 4.2. Response to Direct Intracellular Stimulation.- 4.3. Response to Orthodromic Stimulation.- 4.4. Ionic Requirement for Generation of Action Potential.- 5. Nature and Electrogenesis of Postsynaptic Potentials.- 5.1. The “Fast” Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential.- 5.2. The “Slow” Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential.- 5.3. The “Late Slow” Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential.- 5.4. The “Slow” Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potential.- 6. Cholinergic and Adrenergic Receptors at Preganglionic Nerve Terminals.- 6.1. Cholinergic Receptor Site.- 6.2. Adrenergic Receptor Site.- 7. References.- 9 Function of Autonomic Ganglia.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Ganglia as Coordinating Centers.- 2.1. The Relay Hypothesis of Ganglionic Function.- 2.2. Development of a Stochastic Hypothesis.- 3. Experimental Evidence.- 3.1. Observed Patterns of Innervation.- 3.2. Ganglionic Activity and Factors Influencing It.- 3.3. Relative Autonomy of Ganglia.- 4. Conclusions.- 5. References.- 10 Peripheral Autonomic Transmission.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Definition of the Autonomic Neuromuscular Junction.- 2.1. Relation of Nerve Fibers to Muscle Effector Bundles.- 2.2. Relation of Nerve Fibers to Individual Smooth Muscle Cells.- 3. Adrenergic Transmission.- 3.1. Introduction.- 3.2. Structure of Adrenergic Neurons and Storage of Noradrenaline.- 3.3. Electrophysiology of Adrenergic Transmission.- 3.4. Ionic Basis of the Action of Catecholamines on the Postjunctional Membrane.- 3.5. Summary.- 4. Cholinergic Transmission.- 4.1. Introduction.- 4.2. Localization of Acetylcholinesterase.- 4.3. Electrophysiology of Cholinergic Transmission.- 4.4. Ionic Basis of the Action of ACh on the Postjunctional Membrane.- 4.5. Summary.- 5. Purinergic Transmission.- 5.1. Introduction.- 5.2. Electrophysiology of Purinergic Transmission.- 5.3. Summary.- 6. Conclusions.- 7. References.- 11 “Trophic” Functions.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Regulation of Taste Buds.- 3. Regulation of Amphibian Limb Regeneration.- 4. Regulation of Physiological and Metabolic Properties of Muscle.- 4.1. Resting Membrane Potential.- 4.2. Acetylcholine Sensitivity.- 4.3. Cholinesterase Activity.- 4.4. The Role of ACh Release.- 4.5. The Dynamic Nature of the Muscle Fiber.- 4.6. Plasticity of the Motor Unit.- 5. Mechanisms of Neural Regulation.- 6. References.- Section III—Receptors—Structure and Function.- 12 Cutaneous Receptors.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Morphology of Cutaneous Nerves.- 2.1. Uniformity of Cutaneous Axons.- 2.2. Relative Numbers of Myelinated and Nonmyelinated Axons.- 3. Morphology of Cutaneous Receptors.- 3.1. Encapsulated Receptors.- 3.2. Unencapsulated Corpuscular Receptors.- 3.3. Noncorpuscular Receptors.- 4. Physiology of Cutaneous Receptors.- 4.1. Cutaneous Mechanoreceptors.- 4.2. Cutaneous Thermoreceptors.- 4.3. Nociceptors.- 5. References.- 13 The Pacinian Corpuscle.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Morphology.- 3. Afferent Responses to Mechanical Stimuli.- 4. Mechanical Properties of the Corpuscle.- 5. Receptor Potentials.- 6. Impulse Activity in the Nerve Terminal.- 7. Distribution of Pacinian Corpuscles.- 8. Central Effects of Impulses from Pacinian Corpuscles.- 9. References.- 14 Receptors in Muscles and Joints.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Joint Receptors.- 3. Tendon Organs.- 4. Muscle Spindles.- 4.1. Reptiles.- 4.2. Amphibia.- 4.3. Birds.- 4.4. Mammals.- 5. Uncertain Origin of Adaptation.- 6. References.- 15 Enteroceptors.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Methods.- 2.1. Histology.- 2.2. Physiology.- 3. Cardiovascular Receptors.- 3.1. Systemic Arterial Baroreceptors.- 3.2. Pulmonary Arterial Baroreceptors.- 3.3. Ventricular Receptors.- 3.4. Atriovenous Receptors.- 4. Respiratory System Receptors.- 4.1. Cough and Irritant Receptors.- 4.2. Pulmonary Stretch Receptors.- 4.3. Type J Receptors.- 4.4. Other Receptors.- 5. Alimentary System Receptors.- 5.1. Muscular Receptors.- 5.2. Serosal Receptors.- 5.3. Muscularis Mucosae Receptors.- 5.4. Chemoreceptors.- 5.5 Hepatic Osmoreceptors.- 6. Urinary Tract Receptors.- 6.1. Bladder.- 6.2. Urethra.- 7. Other Enteroreceptors.- 8. References.- 16 Arterial Chemoreceptors.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Structure.- 2.1. Light Microscopy.- 2.2. Electron Microscopy.- 2.3. Degeneration Studies.- 3. Function.- 3.1. Types of Activity in the Nerve Supply to the Receptor Complex.- 3.2. The Type I Cell.- 4. The Identity of the Receptor.- 4.1. The Received View.- 4.2. A New Hypothesis.- 5. References.- 17 Taste Receptors.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Gustatory Nerve Fiber Response to Chemical Stimuli.- 2.1. Multiple Sensitivity of Single Chorda Tympani Fibers.- 2.2. Neural Code for Quality of Taste and “Across-Fiber Pattern” Theory.- 3. Electrical Responses of Gustatory Cells to Chemical Stimuli.- 3.1. Innervation and Structure of Taste Bud.- 3.2. How Do Gustatory Cells Respond to Chemical Stimuli?.- 4. References.

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