The Throne of Adulis: Red Sea Wars on the Eve of Islam

The Throne of Adulis: Red Sea Wars on the Eve of Islam

by G.W. Bowersock

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Overview

Just prior to the rise of Islam in the sixth century AD, southern Arabia was embroiled in a violent conflict between Christian Ethiopians and Jewish Arabs. Though little known today, this was an international war that involved both the Byzantine Empire, which had established Christian churches in Ethiopia, and the Sasanian Empire in Persia, which supported the Jews in what became a proxy war against its longtime foe Byzantium.

Our knowledge of these events derives largely from an inscribed marble throne at the Ethiopian port of Adulis, meticulously described by a sixth-century Christian merchant known as Cosmas Indicopleustes. Using the writings of Cosmas and a wealth of other historical and archaeological evidence from the period, eminent historian G. W. Bowersock carefully reconstructs this fascinating but overlooked chapter in pre-Islamic Arabian history. The flashpoint of the war, Bowersock tells us, occurred when Yusuf, the Jewish king of Himyar, massacred hundreds of Christians living in Najran. The Christian ruler of Ethiopia, Kaleb, urged on by the Byzantine emperor Justin, led a force of 120,000 men across the Red Sea to defeat Yusuf. But when the victorious Kaleb--said to have retired to a monastery-left behind weak leaders in both Ethiopia and Himyar, the Byzantine and Persian empires expanded their activity in the Arabian territory. In the midst of this conflict, a new religion was born, destined to bring a wholly unanticipated resolution to the power struggle in Arabia.

The Throne of Adulis vividly recreates the Red Sea world of Late Antiquity, transporting readers back to a remote but pivotal epoch in ancient history, one that sheds light on the collapse of the Persian Empire as well as the rise of Islam.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780199739325
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Publication date: 04/01/2013
Series: Emblems of Antiquity
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 208
Sales rank: 1,041,253
Product dimensions: 5.80(w) x 8.40(h) x 0.90(d)

About the Author



G. W. Bowersock is Professor Emeritus of Ancient History at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey. Among his many previous books are From Gibbon to Auden: Essays on the Classical Tradition, Mosaics as History: The Near East from Late Antiquity to Islam, and Roman Arabia.

Table of Contents



Preface
Abbreviations
List of Maps and Illustrations
Maps
I. The Throne
II. A Christian Traveller in the Red Sea
III. Ptolemy's Elephants
IV. The Kingdom of Axum
V. Christianity Comes to Axum
VI. Judaism Comes to Himyar
VII. The Ethiopian Invasion of 525
VIII. Entry of the Great Powers
IX. Reckoning
Appendix: Nonnosus
Bibliography
Index

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