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Pearson Education
A User's Guide to Engineering / Edition 1

A User's Guide to Engineering / Edition 1

by James JensenJames Jensen
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With an informal and engaging writing style, A User’s Guide to Engineering is an exploration of the world of engineering for future and current engineers. An important feature of this guide is the collection of engineering case studies which present stories of engineers faced with challenges that can be solved by applying the fundamental ideas presented in the book.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780131480254
Publisher: Pearson Education
Publication date: 11/17/2005
Series: ESource Series
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 384
Product dimensions: 7.90(w) x 9.90(h) x 0.90(d)

About the Author

James Jensen is currently Associate Professor of Civil Engineering and Director of the Environmental Science Program at the State University of New York at Buffalo. Dr. Jensen received his B.S. in Engineering and Applied Sciences from the California Institute of Technology in 1980. He received an MSPH in 1983 and Ph.D. in 1988 from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. His teaching responsibilities are in the area of environmental engineering, with emphasis on environmental chemistry and physicochemical processes. Dr. Jensen's current research interests are aimed at the fundamental chemistry and application of chemical oxidants in natural and engineered systems. Dr. Jensen has served as the Chairman for the Standard Methods Joint Task Group on Oxidant Demand/Requirement. His research work has been funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, industry, and utilities.

Table of Contents

Part I: Discovering Engineering

Chapter 1: About Discovering Engineering

1.1 Introduction

Focus On Choosing Engineering: So Why Did You Become an Engineer?

1.2 Welcome to Engineering

1.3 How to Discover Engineering

Focus On Diversity in Engineering: The Real McCoy?

1.4 Engineering Education: What You Should Expect

1.4.1 Eaton’s first rule: “ ... make practical applications of all the sciences ...”

1.4.2 Eaton’s second rule: “... take the place of the teacher ... [in] exercises.”

1.4.3 Eaton’s third rule: “... attend to but one branch of learning at the same time...”

1.4.4 Eaton’s fourth rule: “Let the amusements and recreation of students be of a scientific character.”

1.4.5 Eaton’s fifth rule: “Let every student daily criticize those whose exercise he has attended ...”

1.5 Summary

Summary of Key Ideas


Chapter 2: What is Engineering?

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Defining Engineering

2.3 Engineering as an Applied Discipline

2.3.1 Knowledge generation versus knowledge implementation

2.3.2 The role of engineering

2.4 Engineering As Creative Problem Solving

2.4.1 Solving problems

2.4.2 Standard approaches to solving problems

2.4.3 Creative approaches to solving problems

2.5 Engineering as Constrained Optimization

2.5.1 Constraints

2.5.2 Feasibility

Focus On Constrained Optimization: A Square Peg in a Round Hole

2.6 Engineering as Making Choices

2.7 Engineering as Helping Others

2.8 Engineering as a Profession

2.9 Summary

Summary of Key Ideas


Chapter 3: Engineering Careers

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Engineering Jobs

3.2.1 Availability of jobs

3.2.2 Introduction to engineer­ing jobs

3.2.3 Engineers in industry

3.2.4 Engineers in service

3.2.5 Engineers in government

3.2.6 Other engineering jobs

3.2.7 Engineering education as a route to other fields

Focus On Non-Engineers: It’s Not Hedy, It’s Hedley

3.3 Job Satisfaction in Engineering

3.3.1 What does “job satisfaction” mean to you?

3.3.2 Engineering salaries

3.4 Future of Engineering Employment

3.5 Summary

Summary of Key Ideas


Chapter 4: Engineering Disciplines

4.1 Introduction

4.2 How Many Engineering Disciplines Exist?

4.3 Chemical Engineering

4.3.1 Technical areas

4.3.2 Applications

4.3.3 Curriculum

4.4 Civil Engineering

4.3.1 Technical areas

4.3.2 Applications

4.3.3 Curriculum

4.5 Electrical Engineering

4.5.1 Technical areas

4.5.2 Applications

4.5.3 Curriculum

4.6 Industrial Engineering

4.6.1 Technical areas

4.6.2 Applications

4.6.3 Curriculum

4.7 Mechanical Engineering

4.7.1 Technical areas

4.7.2 Applications

4.7.3 Curriculum

4.8 Major Engineering Subdisciplines

4.8.1 Introduction

4.8.2 Materials engineering

4.8.3 Aeronautical, astronautical, and aerospace engineering

4.8.4 Environmental engineering

4.8.5 Agricultural engineering

4.8.6 Biomedical engineering

4.9 How Do New Engineering Disciplines Evolve?

4.9.1 Introduction

4.9.2 Creation of new field by budding

4.9.3 Creation of new field by merging

Focus On Emerging Disciplines: So You Want to Be a Nanoengineer?

4.10 Summary

Summary of Key Ideas


Part II: Engineering Problem Solving

Chapter 5: Introduction to Engineering Problem Solving and the Scientific Method

5.1 Introduction

5.1.1 Engineering problems

5.1.2 The art and science of engineering problem-solving

5.1.3 Engineering solution methods

5.2 Approaches to Engineering Problem Solving

5.2.1 Introduction

5.2.2 Scientific method

5.2.3 Engineering analysis method

5.2.4 Engineering design method

5.2.5 Need for innovation

5.3 Introduction to the Scientific Method

5.3.1 Introduction

5.3.2. Scientific problem-solving process

5.4 Problem Definition

5.4.1 Introduction

5.4.2 Inclusive and exclusive definitions

5.4.3 Disadvantages of definitions that are not specific

5.5 Formulate a Hypothesis

5.5.1 Introduction

5.5.2 Hypotheses as testable statements

5.6 Test the Hypothesis

5.6.1 Testing a hypothesis by experiment

5.6.2 Testing a hypothesis by analysis

5.7 Drawing Conclusions from Hypothesis Testing

5.7.1 Rejecting a hypothesis

5.7.2 Conditionally accepting a hypothesis

5.8 Examples of the Use of the Scientific Method

5.9 Summary

Summary of Key Ideas


Chapter 6: Engineering Analysis Method

6.1 Introduction

6.1.1 Introduction to the engineering analysis method

6.1.2 Solving analysis problems

6.2 Gathering Data

6.2.1 Introduction

6.2.2 Data collection

6.3 Selecting the Analysis Method

6.3.1 Introduction

6.3.2 Selection of physical laws

6.3.3 Translation into mathematical expressions

6.4 Estimate the Solution

6.4.1 Introduction

6.4.2 Example

6.5 Solving the Problem

6.5.1 Solving mathematical expressions by isolating the unknown

6.5.2 “Golden Rule” of expression manipulation

6.5.3 Manipulating inequalities

6.5.4 Hints for manipulating equations

6.6 Check the Results

6.6.1 Introduction

6.6.2 Use logic to avoid aphysical answers

6.6.3 Using logic to check expression manipulation

6.6.4 Using estimation to check solutions

6.6.5 Using units to check solutions

6.7 Units

6.7.1 Introduction

6.7.2 Dimensional analysis

Focus On Units: The Multimillion Dollar Units Mistake

6.7.3 Units and functions

6.7.4 Units conversion

6.8 An Example of the Engineering Analysis Method

6.9 Summary

Summary of Key Ideas


Chapter 7: Engineering Design Method

7.1 Introduction

7.1.1 Introduction to engineering design

7.1.2 Solving design problems

7.2 Generating Multiple Solutions

7.2.1 Introduction

7.2.2 Brainstorming

7.2.3 Methods for generating new ideas

7.3 Analyzing Alternatives and Selecting a Solution

7.3.1 Analyzing alternatives

7.3.2 Selecting a solution

7.4 Implementing the Solution

7.5 Evaluating the Solution

7.6 Design Example

7.7 Design Parameters

7.7.1 Introduction

7.7.2 Example

7.7.3 Uses of design parameters

7.8 Innovations in Design

7.8.1 Introduction

7.8.2 Need for innovation

7.8.3 Design innovation by concurrent engineering

7.8.4 Design innovation by reengineering

7.8.5 Design innovation by reverse engineering

7.8.6 How to innovate

7.8.7 Translating failure into success through innovation

Focus On Design: What Comes Around, Goes Around

7.9 Summary

Summary of Key Ideas


Part III: Engineering Problem-Solving Tools

Chapter 8: Introduction to Engineering Problem-Solving Tools and Using Data

8.1 Introduction

8.1.1 Engineering problem-solving tools

8.1.2 Using data

8.2 Accuracy and Precision

8.2.1 Introduction

8.2.2 Accuracy

8.2.3 Precision

8.3 Rounding and Significant Digits

8.3.1 Introduction

8.3.2 Counting the number of significant digits

8.3.3 Exceptions to the rule: numbers with no decimal point and exact numbers

8.3.4 Reporting measurements

8.3.5 Rounding and calculations

8.4 Measures of Central Tendency

8.4.1 Introduction

8.4.2 Arithmetic mean

8.4.3 Median

8.4.4 Geometric mean

8.4.5 Harmonic mean

8.4.6 Quadratic mean

8.4.7 Mode

8.5 Measures of Variability

8.5.1 Introduction

8.5.2 Variance

8.5.3 Standard deviation

8.5.4 Relative standard deviation

8.5.5 Variability and data collection in engineering

Focus On Variability: Paying to Reduce Uncertainty

8.6 Summary

Summary of Key Ideas


Chapter 9: Engineering Models

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Why Use Models?

9.3 Types of Models

9.3.1 Introduction

9.3.2 Conceptual models

9.3.3 Physical models

9.3.4 Mathematical models

9.3.5 Other kinds of models

Focus On Models: Mathematical or Physical Model?

9.4 Using Models and Data to Answer Engineering Questions

9.4.1 Interplay of models and data

9.4.2 Potential errors

9.4.3 Model fits

9.4.4 Using calibrated models

9.4.5 Determining model fit

9.4.6 Are engineering models real?

9.5 Summary

Summary of Key Ideas


Chapter 10: Computing Tools in Engineering

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Computer Hardware

10.2.1 Computer types

10.2.2 Microprocessors

10.2.3 Memory and mass storage

10.2.4 Input, output, and communication devices

10.3 General Computer Software

10.3.1 Introduction

10.3.2 Operating systems

10.3.3 Communications software

10.3.4 Spreadsheet software

10.4 Engineering and Science Specific Software

10.4.1 Introduction

10.4.2 Programming software

10.4.3 Trends in programming software

10.4.4 Symbolic math software

10.4.5 Computer-aided design

10.4.6 Discipline-specific software

10.5 The Internet

10.5.1 Introduction

10.5.2 Structure of the Internet

10.5.3 Uses of the Internet

10.6 Summary

Summary of Key Ideas


Chapter 11: Feasibility and Project Management

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Technical Feasibility

11.3 Engineering Economics

11.3.1 Costs of engineering projects

11.3.2 Time value of money

11.3.3 Calculating the present and future value of money

11.3.4 Uniform series

11.3.5 Engineering economics calculations

11.4 Economic Feasibility

11.4.1 Introduction

11.4.2 Comparing alternatives

11.4.3 Example

11.5 Fiscal Feasibility

11.5.1 Introduction

11.5.2 Bonds

11.5.3 Example

11.6 Social, Political, and Environmental Feasibility

11.7 Project Management

11.7.1 Introduction

11.7.2 Project planning

11.7.3 Project scheduling

11.7.4 Critical path method

11.8 Summary

Summary of Key Ideas


Part IV: Technical Communication

Chapter 12: Introduction to Technical Communication

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Role of Technical Communication in Engineering

12.2.1 Technical communication as a professional skill

12.2.2 Technical communication and employment

12.3 Misconceptions About Technical Communication

12.3.1 Misconception #1: Technical communication is inherently boring

12.3.2 Misconception #2: Engineering communication is passive

12.3.3 Misconception #3: Technical communication is best left to non-engineering specialists

12.3.4 Misconception #4: Good technical communicators are born, not made

12.4 Critical First Steps

12.4.1 Presentation goals

12.4.2 Target audience

12.4.3 Constraints

12.5 Organization

12.5.1 Outlines

12.5.2 Signposting

12.6 Using Tables and Figures to Present Data

12.6.1 Use of tables and figures

12.6.2 Common characteristics of tables and figures

12.7 Tables

12.8 Figures

12.8.1 Scatter plots

12.8.2 Bar charts

12.8.3 Pie charts

Focus On Figures: Of Plots and Space Shuttles

12.9 Creativity in Technical Presentations

12.9.1 Creative conciseness

12.9.2 Thinking visually

12.10 Summary

Summary of Key Ideas


Chapter 13: Written Technical Communications

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Overall Organization of Technical Documents

13.2.1 Introduction

13.2.2 General organization

13.2.3 Abstract

13.2.4 Introduction

13.2.5 Methods

13.2.6 Results and discussion

13.2.7 Conclusions and recommendations

13.2.8 References

13.2.9 Signposting in technical writing

13.3 Organizing Parts of Technical Documents

13.3.1 Paragraph organization

13.3.2 Sentence organization

13.3.3 Word choice

13.4 Grammar and Spelling

13.4.1 Subject-verb match

13.4.2 Voice

13.4.3 Tense

13.4.4 Pronouns

13.4.5 Adjectives and adverbs

13.4.6 Capitalization and punctuation

13.4.7 Spelling

13.4.8 Citation

13.4.9 Other problem areas

13.4.10 Proofreading

13.5 Types of Engineering Documents

13.5.1 Introduction

13.5.2 Reports

13.5.3 Letters

13.5.4 Memorandums

Focus On Writing: Whither Paper Reports?

13.6 Summary

Summary of Key Ideas


Chapter 14: Oral Technical Communications

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Before the Talk: Organization

14.3 Before the Talk: Designing Visual Aids

14.3.1 Number of visual aids

14.3.2 Types of visual aids

14.3.3 Content of visual aids: word slides

14.3.4 Content of visual aids: data slides

14.3.5 Special notes about computer-based presentations

14.4 Before the Talk: Preparing to Present

14.4.1 Practicing oral presentations

14.4.2 Memory aids

14.5 During the Talk

14.5.1 Pre-talk activities

14.5.2 Group presentations

14.5.3 Nervousness

14.5.4 What to say

14.5.5 How to say it

Focus On Talks: Horror Stories

14.6 After the Talk

14.7 Summary

Summary of Key Ideas


Part V: Engineering Profession

Chapter 15: Introduction to the Engineering Profession and Professional Registration

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Professional Issues

15.2.1 What is a profession?

15.2.2 Engineering as a profession

15.2.3 Judgment and discretion in engineering

15.2.4 Admission to the profession

15.2.5 Self-policing

Focus On Professionalism: Standing on the Shoulders of Giants

15.3 Professional Engineers

15.3.1 Introduction

15.3.2 Why Become a professional engineer?

15.4 The Registration Process

15.4.1 Overview

15.4.2 The accredited degree

15.4.3 Fundamentals of Engineering Examination

15.4.4 Experience

15.4.5 Principles and Practice Examination

Focus On Registration: PE or Not PE?

15.5 After Registration

15.6 Summary

Summary of Key Ideas


Chapter 16: Engineering Ethics

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Why Should Engineers Be Ethical?

16.3 Codes of Ethics

16.3.1 Introduction

16.3.2 NSPE Code of Ethics

16.4 Examples of Engineering Ethics

16.4.1 Not reporting violations

16.4.2 Whistle-blowing

Focus On Ethics: Workplace Ethics

16.5 Summary

Summary of Key Ideas


NSPE Code of Ethics for Engineers

Part VI: Case Studies in Engineering

Chapter 17: Introduction to the Engineering Case Studies

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Case Studies in this Text

17.2.1 Introduction

17.2.2 Using the case studies

17.3 Summary

Chapter 18: Millennium Bridge Case Study

18.1 Introduction

18.2 The Story

18.3 The Case Study

18.3.1 Introduction

18.3.2 Case study

18.3.3 Reporting

18.4 Study Questions

18.5 Acknowledgements and Further Reading

Summary of Key Ideas

Default Grading Scheme: Millennium Bridge Case Study

Chapter 19: Controllability Case Study

19.1 Introduction

19.2 The Story

19.3 The Case Study

19.3.1 Introduction

19.3.2 Case study

19.3.3 Modeling

19.3.4 Reporting

19.4 Study Questions

19.5 Acknowledgements and Further Reading

Default Grading Scheme: Controllability Case Study

Chapter 20: Dissolution Case Study

20.1 Introduction

20.2 The Story

20.3 The Case Study

20.3.1 Introduction

20.3.2 Case study

20.3.3 Reporting

20.4 Study Questions

20.5 Acknowledgements and Further Reading

Default Grading Scheme: Dissolution Case Study

Chapter 21: Computer Workstation Case Study

21.1 Introduction

21.2 The Story

21.3 The Case Study

21.3.1 Introduction

21.3.2 Case study

21.3.3 Reporting

21.4 Study Questions

21.5 Acknowledgements and Further Reading

Default Grading Scheme: Computer Workstation Case Study

Chapter 22: Power Transmission Case Study

22.1 Introduction

22.2 The Story

22.3 The Case Study

22.3.1 Introduction

22.3.2 Case study

22.3.3 Reporting

22.4 Study Questions

22.5 Acknowledgements and Further Reading

Default Grading Scheme: Power Transmission Case Study

Chapter 23: Walkway Collapse Case Study

23.1 Introduction

23.2 The Story

23.3 The Case Study

23.3.1 Introduction

23.3.2 Case study

23.3.3 Reporting

23.4 Study Questions

23.5 Acknowledgements and Further Reading

Default Grading Scheme: Walkway Collapse Case Study

Chapter 24: Trebuchet Case Study

24.1 Introduction

24.2 The Story

24.3 The Case Study

24.3.1 Introduction

24.3.2 Case study

24.3.3 Reporting

24.4 Study Questions

24.5 Acknowledgements and Further Reading

Default Grading Scheme: Trebuchet Case Study

Appendix A: Review of Physical Relationships A.1 Introduction A.2 Definitions A.2.1 Kinematic parameters A.2.2 Fundamental forces A.2.3 Other forces A.2.4 Energy, work, and power A.3 Decomposition by Vectors A.3.1 Position vectors A.3.2 Other vectors A.4 Conservation Laws A.5 Gradient-driven Processes

Appendix B: Greek Alphabet in Engineering, Science, and Mathematics Appendix C: Linear Regression C.1 Introduction C.2 Linear Regression Analysis C.3 Calculating Linear Regression Coefficients Appendix D: Using Solver

D.1 Introduction

D.2 Using Solver for Model Fitting

D.2.1 Introduction

D.2.2 Setting up the spreadsheet

D.2.3 Finding optimal parameter values

D.3 Using Solver with Constraints

D.3.1 Introduction

D.3.2 Finding optimal parameter values with constraints

D.4 Final Thoughts on Optimization

Appendix E: Extended Trebuchet Analysis

E.1 Introduction

E.2 Analysis

E.2.1 Introduction

E.2.2 Revised kinematic equations

E.2.3 Dependency on d and l/L

E.2.4 Results

Appendix F: References and Bibliographies

F.1 References

F.2 Annotated Bibliography: Technical Communication

F.3 Bibliographies for Focus Ons

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